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Abnormal Psychology Ch 9. Substance Use Disorders
Terms in this set (56)
Commonly called "drugs" are chemical that alter mental ability, mood , or behavior
Substance use disorders
Psychological disorders that are characterized by loss of control over urges to use a psychoactive substance, even though such use may impair functioning or cause distress
The reversible dysfunctional effects on thoughts, feelings, and behavior, that arise form the use of psychoactive substance
the compulsion to seek and then use a psychoactive substance for either its pleasurable effects or with continued use for relief from negative emotions such as anxiety or sadness
The biological response that arises from repeated use of a substance such that more of it is required to obtain the same effect
The set of symptoms that arises when a regular substance user decreases or stops intake of an abused substance
Substance use disorder on a Continuum
The continuum looks at the persons usage of the stimulant as how much, how often. how long to which it has impaired their daily functioning
3 common pathways to substance abuse
1st. Substance use disorders can arise unintentionally as can occur through environmental exposure.
2nd. Substance use disorders can develop when the psychoactive element is a side effect, and the substance is taken for medicinal reasons unrelated to the psychoactive effect.
3rd. Substance use disorders can develop as a result of the intentional use of a substance for its psychoactive effects
The third pathway is the most common path way that leads to substance abuse 2 models have been created to explain this pathway
Common liabilities model
The model that explains how neurological psychological and social factors make a person vulnerable to a variety of problematic behaviors including substance use disorders also called problem behavior theory
The proposal that use can become a use disorder when entry drugs serve as a gateway to (or the first stage in a progression to) use of "harder" drugs.
(not entirely true)
Common comorbids disorder include mood disorders, PTSD, schizophrenia and ADHD. People who have a non substance use related psychological disorder have a greater risks of substance use turning into a disorder.
When substance use disorder develops after another psychological disorder has developed, clinicians may infer that the person is using substances in an attempt to alleviate symptoms of the other disorder, to self medicate.
A behavior pattern of abusing more than one substance.
Prevalence And Costs
Men are more like than women to be diagnosed with a substance use disorder although women are more likely to be diagnosed with a substance use disorder related to legally obtained prescription medications. Children of parents who abuse substances are at increased risk of developing emotional and behavioral problems
Substances that increased activity and arousal. Stimulants include nicotine and amphetamines which are restricted as well as cocaine crack and MDMA which are illegal. At low doses a stimulant can make the user feel alert less hungry and more energetic mentally and physically.
Cocaine and Crack
Cocaine - Typically in a powder form is "snorted". Cocaine acts like a local anesthetic. Thus snorted it leaves the user's nose feeling numb; repeated snorting can lead to diminished sense of smell and difficulty swallowing. Although the fist few experiences of cocaine use may provide a heightened sense of well being that can last for up to an hour, this positive state becomes increasingly harder to attain as tolerance develops.
Crack - Crystalline form: smoked. Smoked crack has acts more quickly than snorted cocaine and has more intense effects. High usually lasts a couple of minutes. When the high is over it leads the user in a sense of depression and craving for more of the drug. Aftereffects may lead to tolerance or withdrawal which can take months to years to develop.
Effects of cocaine abuse
Long-Term effects of cocaine - addiction, irritability and mood disturbances, restlessness, paranoia, hallucinations.
Medical consequences of cocaine abuse - cardiovascular effects disturbances in heart rhythm, heart attack, respiratory effects, chest pain, respiratory failure, neurological effects strokes, seizures and headaches, gastrointestinal complications abdominal pain, nausea
Produce same effects as cocaine, although these effects last longer. Usually taken in pill form, can be snorted diluted and injected. Are legally used to treat some disorders particularly ADHD and the sleep disorder narcolepsy. With usage people may become hostile towards others, develop a sense of grandiosity, or exhibit disorganized thinking or behavior. Tolerance develops users may take higher doses
Amphetamine Psychosis - a condition characterized by paranoid delusions and hallucinations. Can compromise memory and physical coordination, as well as reversible effects of irritability and violent behavior. Withdrawal symptoms may include depression, fatigue, anxiety, and irritability.
"Meth or Speed" is chemically similar to amphetamines but has a greater longer lasting effect on the central nervous system. Can be inhaled, swallowed, smoked, or injected, in all cases leading to an intense "rush" of pleasure. Use rapidly becomes use disorder. Methamphetamine use can adversely affect the functioning neurotransmitters dopamine and serotonin, which leads to motor problems, impaired memory and emotional dysregulation. Some but not all of the brain damage inflicted by methamphetamine abuse is reversible with long term abstinence.
Long term effects of methamphetamine abuse
Dependence, psychosis, including paranoia, hallucinations, repetitive motor activity, changes in brain structure and function, memory loss, aggressive or violent behavior, mood disturbances, severe dental problems, weight loss, increased blood pressure and possible stroke
Frequently prescribed for ADHD. Neurological effect similar to, but slower than that of cocaine. People who abuse Ritalin take the stimulant in any three ways.
Swallowing pills - which does not usually lead to use disorder
Inhaling or snorting crushed pills - leads to a quicker high and causes lung problems
Injecting the drug in liquid form - Produces effects similar to that of cocaine.
People with out ADHD may occasionally swallow ritalin pills for the stimulant effects - heightened alertness, increased attention, and decreased appetite
Ecstasy, is usually taken in tablet form. Chemically similar to methamphetamine and to the hallucinogen mescaline, and has the effects of both types of drugs. Increased energy and the hallucinogenic effect of distorted perceptions. First timer often have feelings of well-being, empathy, and warmth toward others, and a greater sensitivity to touch. This experience is less pervasive with subsequent use, also reduced anxiety and distorted perception, abuse can result in poor mode and difficulty regulating emotions, anxiety aggression, sleep problems, decreased appetite. Can develop impaired cognitive functioning, especially problems with memory after the drug wears off. MDMA similar side effects to those of other stimulants including increased blood pressure and heart rate, excessive sweating another side effect can cause acute dehydration and hyperthermia. MDMA tablets often contain other drugs
Chemically similar to amphetamines and Ecstasy. However the exact composition of each packet of bath salts varies, and packets typically contain at least one other type of drug. Bath slats may lead some users to feel more outgoing and happy, but other users become agitated and paranoid and even hallucinate or become violent. People who have had unpleasant experiences report have intense cravings for more of the substance. Adverse side effects occur most often when bath slats are snorted or injected. Bath salts increase activation of dopamine and may kill neurons. User may need to go to the hospital because of adverse side effects. People have died as a result of the side effects of using bath salts.
(NF)Dopamine Reward System
The system of neurons, primarily in the nucleus accumbens and ventral tagmental area that relies on dopamine and gives rise to pleasant feelings
The desire for the gratifying effects of using a substance
The desire for the temporary emotional relief that can arise from using a substance
Using the substance can eliminate withdrawal symptoms, making it more likely that the behavior will happen again.
The stimuli associated with druh use that come to elicit conditioned responses through their repeated pairings with use of the drug.
(SF)Family, Peers, Socioculture
Dysfunctional family interactions are correlated with the presence of substance use disorder
An individuals substance use is related to that of his or her peers
Norms and perceived norms influence substance use
Substance use disorders are correlated with economic hardship and unemployment
Alcohol (most common), opiates, barbiturates, and benzos. In contrast to stimulants depressants tend to slow a person down, decreasing behavioral activity and level of awareness. Regular use of depressants tends to lead to tolerance and discontinuing the use of depressants or cutting back on the dosage or frequency can produce withdrawal symptoms.
Those who drink alcohol earlier in life are more likely to develop the disorder.
Blood Alcohol Concentration - Crucial variable that determines intoxication is blood alcohol concentration, which is affected by the number of drinks consumed, in the time since the person has last eaten, the persons body weight and the persons gender. The same amount of alcohol will have a a slightly greater effect on a woman than a man of the same size and weight because men and women metabolize the drug differently. Women have less total water content which means that ingested alcohol is less diluted
Occurs when a person drinks until his or her blood alcohol concentrations reaches at least 0.08% in a 2-hour period. Binge drinking is likely to occur when a person sets out to get drunk.
Alcohol use disorder
Chronic drinking leads to tolerance and withdrawal thus fulfilling the minimum two criteria for alcohol use disorder. Alcoholism is marked by 4 symptoms
Craving - Strong need or urge to drink
Loss of control - Episode of drinking in which the person finds it difficult to stop compulsively drinking
Physical dependence - Withdrawal symptoms such as nausea, sweating, shakiness, and anxiety after stopping drinking
Tolerance - A person needs to drink greater amounts of alcohol to get "high"
Alcohol use disorder is associated with blackouts in which the person can not later remember what transpired while he or she was intoxicated.
Sedative Hypnotic Drugs
Reduce pain and anxiety, relax muscles, lower blood pressure, slow breathing, and heart rate, and induce sedation and sleep. Mixed with other depressants combo can be lethal. Chronic use can lead to tolerance
2 types - Barbiturates
Usually prescribed to treat sleep problems. Although useis legal with a prescription, commonly abuse by those with a prescription and those who obtain the drug illegally. Repeated barbiturate use can also lead to withdrawal symptoms, including agitation and restlessness, hallucinations, confusion, and in some cases seizures. People with barbiturate use disorder should slowly wane off the drug and do so with care if not they could risks having convulsions and could even die.
Usually prescribed to alleviate muscle pain, to aid sleep, or as a short-term treatment anxiety; how ever long-term use leads to tolerance and withdrawal. As with barbiturate use the person should slowly wane off the drug; abruptly stopping can lead to seizures and psychosis
Benzos, barbiturates and alcohol directly affect and GABAnergic system. Inhibit the amygdala which is the key role in fear. Thus inhibiting the sense of fear and related feeling of anxiety. Not surprising that this is why the use of depressants is reinforcing.
Chronic drinkers release more opioids the more that they drink.
Korsakoff's Syndrome - Brain atrophy with the association of memory loss.
Children of parents with alcohol use disorders are about twice as likely to become alcoholics than those without such a family history
The symptoms of alcohol withdrawal that include uncontrollable shaking, confusion, convulsions, visual hallucinations and fever. Such withdrawal symptoms normally begin within 4 days after the person last drank alcohol
Observational learning of depressant use
Operant conditioning - Positive Reinforcement (reward craving)
Negative Reinforcement (relief craving)
Classical Conditioning (Drug Cues)
Dysfunctional family interactions
Peers use of depressants
Norms or perceived norms about depressant use (as in a subculture where drinking is the norm or is perceived to be so)
Economic Hardship and Unemployment
Exogenous Opiods - Meaning coming from an outside source. Exogenous opioids include methodone and heroin as well as codeine, morphine, and synthetic derivates found in prescription pain relief such as oxycodone and others.Generally prescribed for persistent coughing, severe diarrhea, and severe pain. These drugs can be injected snorted or taken by mouth. Highly addictive, usage rapidly leads to tolerance and withdrawal and compulsive behavior related to procuring and taking the drug. User may experience psychomotor retardation, psychomotor agitation. Physical symptoms include of withdrawal include nausea and vomiting muscle aches dilated pupils sweating fever and diarrhea. Depressed mood irritability and a sense of restlessness are also common drug withdrawal. Heroin is one of the stronger opioids and is very addictive.
Skin popping - Injected heroin under the skin but not into blood vessels
Mainlining - Injecting into blood vessels (this method causes a more intense "rush".)
Substances that induce sensory or perceptual distortions hallucinations in any of the senses.
Alters users visual or auditory sensations and perceptions. it also includes shifting emotions. A "bad trip" can include intense anxiety fear and dread a user may feel as if he or she is totally losing control going crazy or dying. People may kill them selves as they respond to the hallucinations.
Marijuana (WEED bruh)
Smoked or ingested. Time has slowed down.."like shit bruh them tacos took forever"
The users motor and cognitive abilities are also slowed or temporarily impaired.
Withdrawal symptoms - irritability, anxiety, depression, decreased appetite, and disturbed sleep. These effects are particularly likely to occur if the person started to use weed heavily during adolescence.
Produces a sense of detachment form the users surroundings-- a dissociation.
Club drugs - Phencyclidine (PCP), Ketamine
"Angel dust""Rocket fuel". Can be snorted, ingested or smoked. Users may feel powerful and invulnerable while the drug is their system, but they may become violent or suicidal. At higher doses PCP user may experience hallucinations, delusions, paranoia, disordered thinking, and memory problems as well as speech and cognitive problems even up to a year after last use.
"Special K" or "Vitamin K", induces anesthesia and hallucinations and can be injected or snorted. Shorter acting than PCP and less intense effects. At higher doses user feel as if the are dying. Ketamine use and abuse are associated with temporary memory loss, impaired thinking, a loss of contact with reality, violent behavior, and breathing and heart problems that are potentially lethal. User may develop a tolerance and cravings
(NF)Substance use Disorders
Nucleus accumbens, ventral tegmental area, hippocampus, amygdala, dopamine and depending on the substance abused GABA glutamate, serotonin, cannabinoids
Inherited risks for alcoholism and other substance use disorders
(PF)Substance use Disorders
Not even going to bother same as substance use disorder (PF) same as (SF)
Medically supervised discontinued of substances for those with substances use disorders also referred to as detox.
A medication for treating alcohol use disorder that induces violent nausea and vomiting when it is mixed with alcohol.
(PF)Treatment (Stages of Change)
A series of five stages that characterizes how ready a person is to change problematic behaviors: precontemplation, contemplation, preparation, action and maintenance
(PF)Treatment (Motivational Enhancement Therapy)
A form of treatment specifically designed to boost a patients motivation to decrease or stop substance use by highlighting discrepancies between stated personal goals related to substances use and current behavior; also referred to as motivational interviewing
(SF)Treatment (12 Step Facilitation)
Based on the 12 steps or principles that form the basis of AA. AA views alcohol abuse as a disease that can never be cured, although alcohol related behaviors can be modified by the alcoholics recognizing that he or she has lost control and is powerless over alcohol turning to a higher power for help and seeking abstinence.
(SF)Treatment (Residential Treatment)
Provides a round the clock therapeutic environment. Because it so intensive, residential treatment can help a person more rapidly change how he or she thinks feels and behaves.
Group Therapy - CBT
A treatment that involves an entire family or some portion of a family.
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