Science: Ch. 3 Weather/Climate
Terms in this set (41)
What do the words CLIMATE and WEATHER both have to do with?
The state of the atmosphere
The state of the atmosphere at a particular time and place.
It refers to weather patterns that are characteristic of a region or place for many years.
What are the 4 important elements of weather?
Moisture, temperature, wind speed, and atmospheric pressure.
Where is there no weather and why?
Beyond Earth's atmosphere because where there is no atmosphere, there is no weather.
What can happen to climate over a long period of time?
It can change (this has happened in most parts of the world during long geologic spans of time.
Where does Earth get most of its energy?
From the sun(SOLAR ENERGY). The rest comes from the decay of radioactive elements in the Earth's core.
How does solar energy get to Earth?
In the form of electromagnetic waves
Solar energy is visible as ____ and invisible as _____?
light and heat
What creates weather?
The interactions between solar energy and air, soil, and water on Earth.
How much of the Sun's energy strikes Earth what happens to that energy?
Only a tiny fraction. Half of this small amount is absorbed by Earth's surface. The rest is reflected back into space or absorbed by the atmosphere.
What produces convection currents?
The unequal heating of air and water on Earth's surface.
The movement within the atmosphere caused by the tendency of hotter and less dense materials to rise, and colder, denser materials to sink because of gravity, which causes a transfer of heat.
What do the various types of surfaces on Earth do at different rates?
Give of energy.
Does snow(white) or dark forests(black/dark) receive more solar energy and what % do they both receive?
A dark forest. Snow:5% Dark forest:95%
What causes wind?
Differences in how Earth's surface absorbs and gives off energy create differences in temperature and air pressure and cause movement of the air.
Where does air move?
from areas of high pressure to low pressure and from warm areas to cool areas.
What are the greenhouse gases and what do they do?
Water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane, ozone, and nitrous oxide. These are gases in the atmosphere that absorb some of the Sun's heat energy, traps it in the atmosphere, and then sends it back towards the Earth's surface again.
What is the GREENHOUSE EFFECT?
When the greenhouse gases return heat energy back to the Earth's surface
What is responsible for the change in seasons?
The Earth's tilt on its axis
When the Northern Hemisphere is tilted towards the Sun, it is what?
Spring and Summer (March 21- September 21)
When the Southern Hemisphere is tilted toward the Sun, it is what, and what would it be in the Northern Hemisphere?
it is Spring and Summer (September 23-March 19) and it is winter in the Northern Hemisphere
What and when is the equinox?
Two days during the year (around March 21 and September 21) were neither hemisphere id tilted towards the Sun, so both hemispheres receive the same amount of the Sun's energy.
What does the atmosphere effect?
the amount of solar energy that reaches Earth and protects it from the Sun's more harmful radiation.
What holds the atmosphere in place?
The force of gravity
What are the layers of Earth's atmosphere?
The bottom layer(closest to Earth) is the TROPOSPHERE
The next layer is the STRATOSPHERE
Then the MESOSPHERE
Then the THERMOSPHERE
And lastly, the EXOSPHERE
Where does most of the weather take place in and why?
In the troposphere because the surface of the Earth influences the temperature, moisture, and wind velocity.
The temperature in the troposphere is typically warmer at the surface of the Earth and gets colder as it goes higher. Why?
Because the troposphere is heated from the Earth's surface below, in which solar energy has been reflected back into the atmosphere.
What are some facts about the stratosphere?
-It protects the Earth from the Sun's harmful radiation.
- Its temperatures rise as you move up in altitud
What is the gas in the stratosphere that is very important for life on Earth?
What does ozone do for Earth?
It preforms a protective layer that traps the Sun's harmful ultraviolet and keeps it from reaching the troposphere(this is why there are warmer temperatures at the top of the stratosphere)
What are CFCs?
What is the result in the use of CFCs?
Holes in the protective layer of the ozone over the poles.
What is the temperature in mesosphere before it reaches the final layer?
minus 90 degrees Celsius
What is the forth layer of the atmosphere and what does it do?
The thermosphere and it is where solar radiation first meets the atmosphere and where extreme ultraviolet rays are absorbed. (The temperature can go over 1700 Celsius)
Where is there very little air and where satellites, other spacecrafts, and meteors can travel through them with very little resistance?
The thermosphere and the exosphere.
What did people rely on to predict the weather before the 1800s?
The clouds, winds, the Farmers Almanac, past experiences with seasons, animal behavior, and their own arthritic bones to make weather predictions.
What did Joseph Henry, the Father of Weather Forcasting, invent?
He developed a system of extended meteorological observations, which was the first step in weather forecasting, mapping of weather patterns, and the creation of a national weather service.
How do scientists determine the climate of a region?
They figure out the average weather conditions over a period of 30 years or more.
What do scientists look at when determining climate?
The average temperature, precipitation, air pressure, humidity, and the number of sunshine days when determining climate.
What are the factors that determine climate?
latitudinal location on Earth, wind patterns, nearness to oceans, mountains, and large cities .