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An air tank of volume 1.5 m³ is initially at 800 kPa and 20°C. At t = 0, it begins exhausting through a converging nozzle to sea-level conditions. The throat area is 0.75 cm². Estimate (a) the initial mass flow in kg/s, (b) the time required to blow down to 500 kPa, and (c) the time at which the nozzle ceases being choked.
Your hand holds a liter of milk (mass about 1 kg) while your arm is bent at the elbow in a angle. Estimate the torque caused by the milk on your arm about the elbow joint. Indicate all number used in your calculations. This is an estimate, and your answer may differ by 10 to 50% from the answers of others.
In humans, congenital heart disease is a common birth defect that affects approximately 1 out of 125 live births. Using reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR), Zaidi et al. (2013) determined that approximately 10 percent of the cases resulted from point mutations, often involving histone function. To capture products of gene expression in developing hearts, they used oligo in their reverse transcription protocol.
(a) How would such a high %T in a primer influence annealing temperature?
(b) Compared with oligo(dT) primers, a pool of random sequence primers requires a trickier assessment of annealing temperature. Why?
(c) If one were interested in comparing the quantitative distribution of gene expression in say, the right and left side of a developing heart, how might one proceed using RT-PCR?