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AP Human Geography Unit 2 Vocab

Martha Sharma, Deblij
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Age Distribution
One back-to-back bar graph, showing the number of males and showing females in a particular population in five-year age groups.
Carry capacity
This is the population level that can be supported, given the quantity of food, habitat, water and other life infrastructure present.
Cohort
Population of various age categories in an age-sex population pyramids.
Demographic momentum
this is the tendency for growing population to continue growing after a fertility decline because of their young age distribution.
Demographic Regions
Cape Verde is in Stage 2 (High Growth), Chile is in Stage 3 (Moderate Growth), and Denmark is in Stage 4 (Low Growth). This is important because it shows how different parts of the world are in different stages of the demographic transition.
Demographic Transition model
Has 4 steps. Stage 1 is low growth (low stationary), Stage 2 is High Growth (early expanding), Stage 3 is Moderate Growth (late expanding), and Stage 4 is Low Growth (low stationary), and Stage 5 although not officially a stage is a possible stage that includes zero or negative population growth. This is important because this is the way our country and others countries around the world are transformed from a less developed country to a more developed country.
Dependency Ratio
The number of people who are too young too old to work compared to the number of people in there productive years.
Diffusion of fertility control
the spread of fertility control in an area.
Disease Diffusion
There are two types, contagious and hierarchical. Hierarchical is along high density areas that spread from urban to rural areas. Contagious is spread through the density of people.
Doubling Time
The number of years needed to double a population, assuming a constant rate of natural increase.
Ecumene
The portion of Earth's surface occupied by permanent human settlement.
Epidemiological transition model
This is a distinctive cause of death in each stage of the demographic transition.
Gendered space
knowledge about using space from a male and female angle, to determine how females may be restricted in use of public and private spaces compared to males
Infant Mortality Rate (IMR)
The annual # of deaths of infants under one year of age, compared with total live births. Expressed as # of deaths among infants per 1000 birth.
J-curve
When the projection population show exponential growth
Maladaption
This is an adaptation that has become less helpful than harmful.
Malthus, Thomas
Was one of the first to argue that the worlds rate of population increase was far outrunning the development of food population. This is important because he brought up the point that we may be outrunning our supplies because of our exponentially growing population.
Mortality
There are two useful ways to measure mortality; infant mortality rate and life expectancy. The IMR reflect a country's health care system and life expectancy measures the average number of years a baby can expect to live.
Natality
(Crude Birth Rate) This is the ratio of live births in an area to the population of that area; it is expressed as number of birth in year to every 1000 people alive in the society.
Neo-malthusian
theory that builds upon Malthus' thoughts on overpopulation. Takes into count two factors that Malthus did not: population growth in LDC's, and outstripping of resources other than food
Overpopulation
the number of people in an area exceeds the capacity of the environment to support life at a decent standard of living
Population densities
the frequency with which something occurs in space
Physiological density
The number of people per unit of area of arable land, which is land suitable for agriculture.
Agricultural density
The ratio if the number of farmers to the total amount of farmland
Population distribution
the arrangement of a feature in space. The three main properties are density, concentration, and pattern
Population explosion
a sudden increase or burst in the population in either a certain geographical area
Population projection
predicts the future population of an area or the world.
Population pyramid
A bar graph representing the distribution of population by age and sex.
Rate of natural increase
the percentage by which a population grows in a year.
S-curve
relates to growth and decline in the natural increase
Sex ratio
the number of males per hundred females in the population
Standard of living
refers to the quality and quantity of goods and services available to people and the way they are distributed within a population
Sustainability
the ability to meet humanities current needs without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs
Underpopulation
it is the opposition to overpopulation and refers to a sharp drop or decrease in a region's population
Zero population growth
when the birth rate equals the death rate and the natural increase rate approaches zero
Activity space
space used for a certain industry or activity
Chain Migration
migration of people to a specific location because relatives or members of the same nationality previously migrated there
Cyclic Movement
seasonal and nomadism. Leave a place, but return
Distance Decay
The diminishing in importance and eventual disappearance of a phenomenon with increasing distance from its origin.
Forced Migration
Permanent movement compelled usually by cultural factors.
Gravity model
A model that holds that the potential use of a service at a particular location is directly related to the number of people in a location and inversely related to the distance people must travel to reach the service.
Internal Migration
Permanent movement within a particular country.
Intervening Opportunity
an environmental or cultural feature of the landscape that helps migration
Intercontinental
Permanent movement from one country to a different country
inter-regional
Permanent movement from one region of the country to another
Rural-Urban
Permanent movement from suburbs and rural area to the urban city area
Migratory Movement
Describes human movement from a source to a destination without a return journey
Periodic Movement
movement that involves temporary, recurrent relocation
Personal space
"bubble"
Place Utility
the desirability of a place based on its social, economic and environmental situation. Often used to compare the value of living in different locations.
Push-Pull Factors
Factors that induce people to leave old residence and move to new locations.
Refugee
People forced to migrate from their home country and cannot return for fear of persecution because of their race, religion, nationality, membership in social group, or political opinion.
Space-Time Prism
The set of all points that can be reached by an individual given a maximum possible speed from a starting point in space-time and an ending point in space-time.
Step Migration
a series of small, less extreme location changes are steps
Transhumance
The seasonal migration of livestock between mountains and lowland pastures.
Voluntary migration
when you leave a place on your own terms