What is the process of improving the material conditions of people through diffusion of knowledge and technology?
Gross domestic product per capital, types of jobs, raw materials, and consumer goods are all what?
economic indicators of development
Education + literacy and health + welfare are what?
social indicators of development
Life expectancy, infant mortality rate, natural increase rate, and crude birth rate are all what?
demographic indicators of development
Developed by the United Nations, the HDI combines what several measures of development?
life expectancy at birth, adjusted GDP per capita, and knowledge (schooling and literacy)
Besides the GDP per capita that the UN's HDI uses to determine economic development, what four other indicators can be used to distinguish and MDC from an LDC?
economic structure, worker productivity, access to raw materials, and availability of consumer goods
The typical worker receives how much money per hour in more developed countries, compared to less than how much money per hour in less developed ones?
MDCs: $10 to $15, LDCs: $0.50
What is the value of the total output of goods and services produced in a country, normally during a year?
gross domestic product (GDP)
Annual gross domestic product (GDP) per capita averages over how much money in most developed countries but under how much money in most less developed countries?
MDCs: $20,000, LDCs: $5,000
Why is average per capita income is higher in MDCs?
because people typically earn their living by different means than in LDCs
What are the three sectors of jobs and what do they encompass?
primary (agriculture), secondary (manufacturing), and tertiary (services)
What is the value of a particular product compared to the amount of labor needed to make it?
Explain how the United Kingdom was the first country to develop.
The United Kingdom, the first country to develop in the eighteenth century, had abundant supplies of coal and iron ore, used to make steel for tools. European countries took advantage of domestic coal and iron ore to promote industrial development during the nineteenth century. As they ran short of many raw materials, European countries began to import them.
How have countries that lack resources, such as Japan, Singapore, South Korea, and Switzerland, developed?
through world trade
Name a country that is receiving a lot of money from North America and Western Europe for oil.
What three consumer goods are good indicators of a society's development?
motor vehicles, telephones, and televisions
Where do people in LDCs live that have luxurious consumer goods like motor vehicles, phone lines, and TVs? Where do people in LDCs live that don't own these items?
"haves"- urban areas, "have-nots"- country-side
Name places that have one physician per 500 people or less.
North America, Western Europe, Eastern Europe, Mongolia, Argentina, Venezuela, Egypt, Australia
Name places that have a 15 (or less):1 student-teacher ratio.
Spain, Portugal, Saudi Arabia, Libya, North America, Italy, Germany, Sweden, Norway, Poland
List places with high calorie intake.
North America, Mexico, Argentina, Morocco, Libya, Egypt, Indonesia, Turkey, Western Europe
Name 3 places in South America that have a life expectancy of 75+ years.
Uruguay, Chile, and French Guiana
How many infants survive in LDCs compared to MDCs?
LDCs- 90% survive, MDCs- 99% survive
Anglo-America, Western Europe, Eastern Europe, Japan, and South Pacific are all what?
more developed regions
Latin America, East Asia, Southeast Asia, Middle East, South Asia, and Sub-Saharan Africa are all what?
less developed regions
What more developed region has cultural unity on a global scale, but is very diverse when looking at individual countries?
What is offsetting the increasing cultural unity in Western Europe?
migration of Muslims and Hindus in search of jobs
In Western Europe, higher development is prominent in the _____, rather than the less developed __________.
How do Western Europeans pay for their imports of raw materials?
by providing high-quality goods and services
Which region of the world has had a significant decline in their HDI?
What was the 5-year plan in Russia that helped develop the country economically whose three steps were to (emphasize) heavy industry, mining, electric power, and transportation, disperse production facilities, and locate manufacturing facilities near sources of raw materials rather than near markets?
For many Eastern Europeans, the most fundamental problem was that by concentrating on basic industry, the Communists neglected what?
What is a major economic downside of Japan?
very high physiological density and very little resources to accommodate its population
How was Japan's dominance achieved?
in part by concentrating resources in rigorous educational systems and training programs to create a skilled labor force
How did Japan gets its foothold in the global economy?
by taking advantage of the country's one asset, an abundant supply of people willing to work hard for low wages and by selling low-cost products, Japan then began to specialize in high-quality, high-value products
Australia and New Zealand share many cultural characteristics with who?
the United Kingdom
Out of all the less developed regions, which region's population is the most likely to live in urban areas?
Latin America's population is highly concentrated along what coast? What are they doing to their environment for the sake of development?
the Atlantic Coast (South Atlantic being the most developed), clearing out interior rain forests to make way for agriculture and to sell timber
Overall development in Latin America is hindered by what?
inequitable income distribution
What further retarded China's development?
exploitation of the country's resources by Europe and Japan
Why does China have a much lower natural increase rate than other LDCs?
because of government controls
What social problem has hurt Southeast Asia (Indonesia, Vietnam, Thailand, Philippines, etc.)? Environmental? Economic?
continuos warfare, tropical climate has hindered cultivation of grains, several mountain ranges, active volcanoes, and frequent typhoons
What factor has traditionally kept population growth low in Southeast Asia? What has cause recent trends to rapid population increase?
inhospitable environment, the injection of Western medicine and technology
Where in Southeast Asia has development been rapid?
Thailand (region's center for automobiles and consumer goods), Singapore, Malaysia, and the Philippines
Southeast Asia is a major manufacturer of what?
Why must most products needed in the Middle East be imported?
Much of the Middle East is desert that can sustain only sparse concentrations of plant and animal life.
Many Middle Eastern countries prevent what?
diffusion of financial practices that are considered incompatible with Islamic principles
What is the main reason the United Nations considers the development among the Middle East's petroleum-rich states to be lower than the region's wealth would indicate?
the low level of literacy among women
The AHDI points to what three causes in the Middle East's relatively low HDI?
lack of political freedom, low education and literacy rates, and lack of opportunities for women
Which less developed region has the world's second-highest population and second-lowest per capita income?
Which South Asian country is the world's leading producer of jute, peanuts, sugarcane, and tea?
True or false: Mining companies and other businesses were established in sub-Saharan Africa to supply European industries with needed raw materials rather than to promote overall economic development.
The fundamental problem in many countries of sub-Saharan Africa is what?
a dramatic imbalance between the number of inhabitants and the capacity of the land to feed the population
Name three world regions where the gender gap is very large (in terms of income)?
in parts of the Middle East, South Asia, and Latin America
True or false: As many or more girls than boys are enrolled in school in more developed countries, but fewer girls than boys are enrolled in many LDCs.
Name three world regions that have a life expectancy gap of 6 years or more between gender.
Latin America, Eastern Europe, and Western Europe
What method of development do the following characteristics entail? Spread investment as equally as possible across all sectors of its economy, and in all regions. Reducing poverty takes precedence over encouraging a few people to become wealthy consumers. Isolate business competition from large international corporations. Countries promote self-sufficiency by setting barriers that limit the import of goods from other places. Restrict local businesses from exporting to other countries.
What were the 2 major problems with the self-sufficiency approach?
inefficiency and large bureaucracy
True or false: The international trade model of development calls for a country to identify its distinctive or unique economic assets.
True or false: According to the international trade approach, a country can develop economically by concentrating scarce resources on expansion of its distinctive local industries.
What high-demand resource is the reason for the wealth and further development of the Persian Gulf States (International Trade Approach)?
What are two problems that have conflicted with the development of the Persian Gulf states?
Some Islamic religious principles, which dominate the culture of the Middle East, conflict with business practices in more developed countries. Women are excluded from holding most jobs and visiting public places.
Who are the four Asian Dragons?
South Korea, Singapore, Taiwan, and Hong Kong
Which 2 out of the 4 Asian Dragons were former British colonies until 1965 and 1997 and have virtually no natural resources (large cities surrounded by small amount of rural land)?
Singapore and Hong Kong
Which 2 out of the 4 Asian Dragons have traditionally taken their lead from Japan?
South Korea and Taiwan
Lacking natural resources, the four dragons promoted development how?
by concentrating on producing a handful of manufactured goods
What three problems have hindered countries outside the Persian Gulf and the four Asian dragons from developing through the international trade approach?
uneven resource distribution, market stagnation, and increased dependence on MDCs
When did India dismantle its formidable collection of barriers to international trade?
during the 1990s
Why have countries switched from the self-sufficiency model to the international trade approach?
overwhelming evidence that international trade better promoted development
Explain the progress India has made since switching from the self-sufficiency model to the international trade approach.
In the case of India, under self-sufficiency between 1960 and 1990, GDP grew by 4 percent per year, much lower than in Asian countries that had embraced international trade. After adopting the international trade alternative in the early 1990s, India's GDP grew 7 percent per year during the 1990s.
What two principal ways has the WTO worked to reduce barriers to international trade?
First, through the WTO, countries negotiate reduction or elimination of international trade restrictions on manufactured goods and restrictions on the international movement of money by banks, corporations, and wealthy individuals. Second, the WTO promotes international trade by enforcing agreements.
How have liberal critics attacked the WTO? Conservatives?
Liberal critics charge that the WTO is antidemocratic, because decisions made behind closed doors promote the interest of large corporations rather than the poor. Conservatives charge that the WTO compromises the power and sovereignty of individual countries because it can order changes in taxes and laws that it considers unfair trading practices.
Who are the two major international lenders of LDCs in need of money to finance development (controlled by the MDC governments)?
the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund
True or false: The theory behind borrowing money to build infrastructure is that new or expanded businesses attracted to an area will contribute additional taxes that the LDC uses in part to repay the loans and in part to improve its citizens' living conditions.
What does GDP per capita measure?
the contribution made by the average individual towards generating a country's wealth in a year
Why do people in developed countries display different social characteristics than do people in LDCs?
a result of greater exposure to cultural diversity
Name the only region in which development is not hindered by lack of capital for new construction.
What is the difference between the GDI and GEM?
GDI: compares level of development of women with that of both sexes, GEM: compares the ability of women and men to participate in economic and political decision making
Where are the highest percentages of women in professional and technical jobs?