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chapter 17: biotechnology and genomics
Terms in this set (72)
the modification of organisms, cells, and their molecules for practical benefits
what are the uses of biotechnology?
it is used in:
- Molecular biology
what are examples of biotechnology in agriculture?
- high-yield crops or animal products
- improved food quality/nutrition
- increased food security
- drought resistant plants
- insect resistant plants
what are examples of biotechnology in medicine?
- precision medicine
- diagnostic/screening tools
- gene therapy
- medicines to help the body fight disease
- it trains the immune system to recognize and destroy harmful substances
what are the 2 types of vaccines?
preventative and treatment
give examples of preventative (prophylactic) vaccines
- Hepatitis B vaccine (HBV; liver cancer)
- Gardasil and Cervarix vaccine (HPV; cervical cancer)
give examples of treatment (therapeutic) vaccines
- FDA approved: PROVENGE (for prostate cancer), IMLYGIC (for melanoma) and YESCARTA (for lymphomas)
- Several in clinical trials
what are examples of biotechnology in environement?
- pollution indicators
- any fuel that is derived from biomass (plant, algae or animal waste);
- is considered to be a source of renewable energy
use to treat contaminated media (water, soil etc) by altering environmental conditions
substances used to indicate pollution
various ways to isolate the DNA from an organism. mostly involves breaking the cell nucleus
DNA replication in a tube. Makes millions of DNA copies. Used in paternity test, use in forensics, fingerprinting of ancient DNA and determining sequences of nucleotides
PCR (same as normal DNA replication aka S phase, but in a tube)
also called restriction endonuclease are proteins produced by bacteria to cleave DNA at specific sites. It cuts the foreign DNA hence, eliminating the infecting organisms
to detect the RNA sequence
to detect the DNA sequence in large complex samples of DNA
to detect protein sequence
- technique used to separate the DNA fragments on the basis of size
- DNA is partially negative and runs towards the positive end of the gel.
DNA cutting enzymes; recognize specific short sequences called the target sequence. naturally produced by bacteria
breaks down lipids in the cell and its membranes.
After the cells are broken down, how are they further broken down?
they are treated with enzyme proteases and/or ribonucleases to further break down material.
what happens to the remaining material during DNA and RNA extraction?
Remaining material is centrifuged to separate it. The supernatant (liquid) containing the DNA/RNA is extracted.
what are the steps of gel electrophoresis?
- DNA can be separated on the basis of size using gel electrophoresis
- DNA has a negative charge and will move towards a positive pole in an electrical field
- DNA fragments are loaded into a gel that is electrified
- As the DNA fragments migrate the gel acts as a sieve sorting fragments by size
- Small fragments move more easily through the pores of the gel than do large ones
- The result is that smaller fragments move faster than larger fragments sorting by size.
short pieces of DNA complementary to each end of the target sequence—are combined with genomic DNA, Taq polymerase, and deoxynucleotides.
a DNA polymerase isolated from the thermostable bacterium Thermus aquaticus that is able to withstand the high temperatures used in PCR.
what are the PCR components used in PCR?
- dna sample
- taq polymerase
- mix buffer
- pcr tube
what are the 3 steps in PCR process?
sample is heated to high temperature so DNA strands separate
sample is warmed. taq polymerase synthesizes new strands of DNA
sample is cooled so primer can anneal to the DNA
DNA fragments are separated on a gel, transferred to a nylon membrane, and incubated with a DNA probe complementary to the sequence of interest.
RNA is run on the gel instead of DNA
proteins are run on a gel and detected using antibodies
to replicate a perfect organism
what are the 2 types of cloning?
molecular (includes rDNA and restriction enzymes) and reproductive
small, circular DNA components, which replicate independently of chromosomal DNA.
why are plasmids effective?
They are effective partly due to multiple cloning site (MCS), which is a short DNA sequence containing multiple sites that restriction endonucleases can cut.
recognize specific DNA sequences (such as MCS) and cut them in a predictable.
The cuts from restriction endonucleases leave 2- or 4-base overhang, which can anneal with a complimentary strand. These are known as
what are the steps to molecular cloning?
1. Plasmids are inserted into a bacterial host for proliferation
2. Foreign DNA is the introduced DNA
3. Host DNA is the bacteria's original DNA
4. Plasmids with foreign DNA are called recombinant DNA molecules, and proteins expressed from them are called recombinant proteins.
creates and identical copy an entire multicellular organism.
what are the steps to reproductive cloning?
1. Scientists undertake somatic transfer to replace an egg cell's haploid nucleus with the diploid nucleus from the organism to be cloned.
2. The egg develops into a zygote as if it had been fertilized normally.
3. The resulting organism is a genetic clone of the one from which the nucleus was taken.
How was Dolly the sheep created?
To create Dolly, the nucleus was removed from a donor egg cell. The nucleus from a second sheep was then introduced into the cell, which was allowed to divide to the blastocyst stage before being implanted in a surrogate mother.
alteration of an organism's genotype using recombinant DNA technology.
how is genetic engineering achieved?
through recombinant DNA vectors generated by molecular cloning.
The organism receiving the recombinant DNA is known as a
genetically modified organism (GMO)
an organism that possess DNA from another species, usually achieved through DNA cloning
what are the common uses of recombinant DNA technology?
4. Crop plants
- when two different DNA from two different sources are joined together
recombinant DNA (rDNA)
are there any dangers from eating genetically modified crops?
no major health dangers but long term studies need to be done
what happens to the genetically modified dna when it hits our stomach?
it is destroyed
what is an example of genetically engineered bacteria?
insulin for individuals with diabetes
what is an example of genetically engineered plants?
corn plants have been engineered to kill insects that eat them
Agrobacterium tumifaciens (bacterial) gene added to produce a protein that provides resistance to Round Up herbicide, glyphosate
what is golden rice?
it is a genetically engineered plant that contains beta-carotene which helps with malnutrition and Vitamin A deficiencies.
wha is calgene?
- slows down the ripening process of tomatoes and hence preventing it from softening, while still allowing it to retain its natural color and flavor
- made more resistant to rotting by adding an antisense gene which interferes with the production of the enzyme Beta polygalacturonase that reaks down pectin in the cell walls and results in the softening of fruit
Using "farms" to produce a pharmaceutical
what is an example of a gentically engineered animal?
glo fish. they were engineered to detect environmental pollutants in water
involves a genetic test to ascertain a person's (or other organism's) likelihood of having a certain disease, or to learn more about a disease that has already been diagnosed
(Treatment and prevention plans may be generated based on the results.)
study of entire genomes including the complete set of genes, their nucleotide sequence and organization, and their interactions within a species and with other species.
maps of location of genes on each chromosome (genetic) and representation of the physical distance between genes or genetic markers (physical)
- Aim to determine the location of genes in the genome
- Estimates distance between genes and genetic markers based on recombination frequencies
Provide detailed information about the physical distance between genes
this map provides the most detailed information
shows the appearance of a chromosome after it is stained and examined under a microscope.
what are the applications of whole genome sequencing?
- Treatment of genetic disorders
- Biofuel development
- Pollution control
many DNA fragments are cut into smaller pieces, which can then be analyzed
analyze each fragment's end for any overlapping
group of automated techniques used for DNA sequencing
Next generation sequencing
what is the difference between dideoxynucleotides and deoxynucleotides?
- A dideoxynucleotide is similar in structure to a deoxynucleotide, but is missing the 3' hydroxyl group (indicated by the box).
- When a dideoxynucleotide is incorporated into a DNA strand, DNA synthesis stops.
- used to detect gene expression and are commonly used in medicine
- a tool to identify whether the DNA from a particular individual contains a mutation in genes such as BRCA1 and BRCA2
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