Modern World History Chapter 12
Terms in this set (151)
When did Eurasian trade revive?
Eurasian trade revived in the fifteenth century, having collapsed in the wake of the Black Death during the 1300s.
What changes in trade were made compared to before the Black Death?
Maritime trade in the Indian Ocean particularly rebounded, although the overland trade routes continued.
How did Europeans affect the international trade system?
Europeans remained minor players in this trade system, having little to offer in terms of goods and being isolated geographically from the center of this trade region.
Who were the major European maritime venturers?
Portuguese and Spanish maritime ventures began to alter the status quo.
_____ in Ming Dynasty China fueled ____.
Internal growth in Ming dynasty China fueled Eurasian commerce.
Where did the capital move to in Ming dynasty China?
Capital moved inland to Beijing.
What was the change in the population during Ming rule? Where did most of the population live?
Chinese population doubled during Ming rule. Most of the population lived in urban areas.
_____ aided trade in Ming Dynasty trade. (Think infrastructure.)
Reconstruction of Grand Canal aided trade.
What was the consequence of all this trade in Eurasia?
Elaborate trade networks developed.
What were two things that China exported?
Domestic production of silk and porcelain expanded.
What was the basis of the Ming monetary system?
Foreigners paid for Chinese products with silver, the basis of the Ming monetary system
What was China's main source of silver in the 16th century?
Japan was a major source of silver in the sixteenth century.
What became an important supplier of silver over time for China?
Increasingly, the Americas became an important supplier of silver through the Philippines.
How did Islamic merchants affect trade?
Islamic merchants reworked a network of exchange linking the East African coast, South Asia, and Southeast Asia to China
What country was the center of these trade routes used by Muslims?
The Indian subcontinent was the center of these trade routes.
How did the Indian population change during this period?
Indian population expanded.
India boasted several ________.
India boasted several large urban areas.
What did India manufacture?
India manufactured silk and cotton textiles.
What did the Indians seek in their trade exchanges? Why? (Think China!)
Indian merchants sought silver in their exchanges in order to purchase goods from China.
How were did rulers along the Indian Ocean take advantage of trade?
Rulers along Indian Ocean flourished by taking custom duties (taxes) on trade.
What was an important trade city (located in Southeast Asia)? (Think SAA!)
Melaka in Southeast Asia emerged as an important emporium.
What city in southwest Asia was an important commercial center?
Aleppo in Syria emerged as the most important commercial center in southwest Asia. (Part of Ottoman Empire).
How did the Ottoman Empire affect overland trade?
Ottoman Empire encouraged overland routes by protecting caravans and providing safe rest stops.
How did the Ottomans benefit from overland trade?
Revenue from this commerce helped finance Ottoman military expansion.
When did the Ottomans capture a certain very important city? (Year and city name)
In 1453, the Ottomans conquered Constantinople and, making it their capital, renamed it Istanbul.
What were the feelings of the Europeans concerning the capture of Constantinople?
Many Europeans believed the Ottoman capture of Constantinople threatened their traditional overland access to Asian markets.
The Portuguese sought new ______ . (Think trade.)
The Portuguese sought new routes to Asia.
The Portuguese explored the _____ in the ____ (century).
The Portuguese explored the West African coast in the fourteenth century.
What were two (general things) that aided the voyages of the Portuguese?
New technology and borrowed information aided their ocean voyages.
The carrack was best for what sailing conditions?
The carrack was suitable for enclosed bodies of water.
The caravel was best for what sailing conditions?
The caravel was better for unpredictable currents and winds.
How (using what things in mind) did the Portuguese design their vessels?
Often their vessels blended elements of both ships' (carrack and caravel) designs.
What method of sailing did the Portuguese develop?
Developed tacking (sailing against the wind).
Using the _____ and the _____, the Portuguese determined ______. (Think sailing and technology)
Using the compass and the astrolabe, they determined latitude.
(Conclusion of all things) Overall, what did the Portuguese use to be amazing sailors?
Using Greek and Arab knowledge, Muslim mariners, and their own experience, they developed hybrid ships for long-distance travel.
What did the Portuguese get from the Chinese that aided their voyages?
Gunpowder from Chinese.
What technology was accomadated for ships for the use of the Portuguese?
Cannons, some small enough to go on ships.
What people could afford to use the new technology?
Main beneficiaries from new warfare were the rulers.
How did battles and tactics in war change?
Battles became more costly and involved lengthy struggles. This gave the advantage to large, centralized states.
How did Africa become a vital trading area?
Africa became a source of gold and sugar.
What did the Portuguese establish in Africa?
The Portuguese established numerous ports of call and fortresses. They also occupied several islands off the coast of Africa and developed sugar plantations.
How did the use of enslaved Africans affect the New World?
The use of enslaved Africans on the island sugar plantations became a model that was transported to the New World.
Who was the first Portuguese to sail to India?
Vasco da Gama was the first to sail to India.
What people aided Da Gama and other mariners in their voages in the Indian Ocean?
Da Gama and later Portuguese mariners were greatly aided by Muslim pilots.
Were Indian rulers impressed with Da Gama's cargo?
Indian rulers were not impressed with his cargo.
In the sixteenth century, the Portuguese created a ____ in the Indian Ocean.
In the sixteenth century, the Portuguese created a trading post empire in the Indian Ocean.
What did the Portuguese do with their armed ships in the Indian Ocean?
Used their ships armed with cannons to capture several key ports, such as Aden, Hormuz, Melaka, Sofala, Kilwa, Goa, and Calicut.
What source of income did the Portuguese get from the Indian Ocean? (think: strategy)
Used this strategic advantage to set up a pass system (the cartaz), like a toll.
What city eclipsed Italian ports as entry point of Asian goods to Europe?
Lisbon eclipsed Italian ports as the prime entry point of Asian goods to Europe.
How important was the contact between Ameridians and Europeans?
The development of sea lanes from Europe to the Americas was an epochal transformation in world history.
How did the Europeans affect the Ameridians? (think measles)
Diseases brought by Europeans devastated the indigenous population, opening the area to European conquest and colonization.
How did the population decrease affect the Africans?
The ensuing labor shortage led Europeans to bring African slaves to the Americas at numbers far greater than Europeans.
Accidental discovery led to _____ and ______.
Accidental discovery led to resettlement and conquest.
What heightened European rivalries?
Competition for the spoils of the Atlantic system heightened European rivalries.
What did Columbus never realize?
Columbus never accepted that he had discovered a "New World" in his late-fifteenth century voyages to the Americas; others, however, soon realized the significance of his journeys.
What did the first encounters that the Columbus's men and the Carribean people symbolize?
1. Columbus's first encounters with natives in the Caribbean symbolized Europeans' competing visions of Native Americans—innocents or savages.
What were the peoples that Columbus encountered?
What peoples were described to be warlike and clashed with the idea of naive Indians?
The Caribs were described as warlike.
What was the Indian perception of the Europeans?
We know less about Indian perceptions of Europeans. They were impressed with European technology. They often thought of Europeans as godlike. European beards, breath, and bad manners often repulsed them.
For whom did Columbus claim the island of Hispaniola?
Columbus claimed the island of Hispaniola for Spain.
How did the Spanish experiment with governing an American colony?
They enslaved the Indian population with the encomienda system, whereby the crown rewarded conquerors with grants of land and labor.
What is an encomienda? What is an encomendero?
Encomienda is the system in which colonists are granted land. Encomenderos (those granted the land) had to pay special taxes on precious metals extracted from their land.
What did Spaniards do when the island's gold supply dwindled?
When the island's gold supply dwindled, many Spaniards looked for opportunity elsewhere.
Who protested the Spanish mistreatment of Indians?
Dominican friars trying to convert the Indians often protested Spanish treatment of the Indians.
How was Indian population affected by European contact?
The vast majority of the Indians died off very quickly.
Where were the Aztecs located? What was the population of their empire?
In Mesoamerica, the Aztecs created a large, complex empire that embraced perhaps 25 million people.
What was the capital of the Aztec Empire?
The primary city was Tenochtitlán.
How did the Aztecs consolidate power?
The Aztec state was based on extensive kinship networks. Priests played a powerful role as well
What role did priests play in the consolidation of power?
Legitimized the new emperor; distinguishing elites from lower classes.
What were the religious beliefs/customs that the Aztecs held?
The Aztecs believed in a cyclical universe and a coming apocalypse. Captives, captured in war, were sacrificed to the gods.
From when did the Aztec Empire begin to be put under stress?
From 1440 onward, the Aztec Empire was under stress
When did Hernan Cortes arrive in the Aztec empire?
Hernan Cortés arrived in early sixteenth century
How did the emperor Moctezuma respond to the arrival of Cortes?
Aztec ruler Moctezuma and his ministers feared Cortés and his men were the god Quetzalcoátl and his entourage and sent emissaries to distract them, but made little effort to fortify the empire.
Who was Dona Marina?
Doña Marina, a daughter of a local Indian noble farmer, was the key translator between Aztecs and Spaniards.
What did Cortes do in order to recruit more men in the force against the Aztecs?
Cortés made alliances with aggrieved Aztec enemies.
What happened in 1519 in reference to the Aztecs?
Cortés entered the Aztec capital, Tenochtitlán, in 1519 and captured Moctezuma, who then ruled as a Spanish puppet.
What happened two years after Cortes decided to rule Tenochtitlan?
The Aztecs rose in rebellion two years later but were defeated by the Spanish and their allies
Why were the Spaniards so successful in conquering the Aztecs?
Spaniards had more advanced technology. Aztecs fought to capture, not to kill. Diseases brought over by the Spanish wiped out much of the Aztec population and made resistance all the more difficult. Furthermore, they used enemies of the Aztecs.
What did Cortes do after he conquered the Aztec empire?
Cortés became governor of the colony "New Spain".
What was going on during the era of the High Middle Ages (1100-1300)? (Think pre-plague)
Population growth, commercial and manufacturing advances, and cultural flowering.
What was one of the commercial advances made in the High Middle Ages?
Expansion of long-distance trade.
How did Europe's cultural "flower"?
Through the building of universities and Islamic learning.
How did the Black Death affect Europe?
25-50 percent of population perished.
How often did the plague return to Europe?
Plague returned every seven years or so throughout century
What were the long term effects of the plague?
Created lasting psychological (Beghards, Flagellants), social (Declining influence of the Western Church, declining legitimacy of the feudal order), economic(decline in food production), and political changes(politicians had to be honest).
What was the name of the of French peasant revolt in 1358?
What was the name of the English peasant revolt?
English Peasants' Revolt.
How did rulers try to consolidate power in this time of turmoil?
Regional dynasties and states appear.
What family was the most important ruling dynasty in Europe?
Habsburg family proved to be the most important ruling dynasty.
What prevented European unification?
Latin as a language unable to unify region. There was no central government. Rival claimants to the throne financed private armies. Clergy demanded special privileges and meddled in politics. The printing press was used to criticize the court.
____ left a legacy of decentralization of political fragmentation.
Feudalism left a legacy of decentralization and political fragmentation.
Tension grew post-plague between what two social classes?
The landed nobility and peasants.
In what form did political organization appear?
Political organization took the form of centralized national monarchies.
What is a monarchy?
A monarchy is a political system in which one individual holds supreme power and passes that power on to his or her next of kin.
How did the consolidation of power appear in Europe? (Think Spain and Portugal)
Occurred through strategic marriages, but more often through warfare
What helped unite the Spanish and Portuguese territories (Southern Europe) after the chaos of the fourteenth century?
Warfare against Muslims helped unite Christian territories and Mediterranean trade helped to add valuable income to state coffers.
Who consolidated the power in Europe during the fifteenth century?
House of Aviz consolidated power in fifteenth century
When did Vasco da Gama sail to India?
Vasco da Gama sailed to India in 1498
What two houses married to consolidate Spain's power? Who were the married?
Marriage of Isabella of Castile and Ferdinand of Aragon in 1469
What was the consequence of this marriage between the house of Castile and Aragon?
Unified wealthy and populated Castile with the trading region of Aragon. Pushed Muslim forces almost completely out of Spain.
What was the Inquisition?
Inquisition was the forced conversion of emigration of Jews and Muslims in Spain.
Who fought/won the Hundred Years' War? When?
i. France's victory in the Hundred Years' War (1337-1453)
What French house began the process of consolidating royal power? Through what means?
House of Valois. Through Strategic marriages and civil wars.
What two houses fought each other in the War of the Roses? Who won?
War of the Roses (1455-1485) failed to create a dynastic house fought by houses of Lancaster and York. Emergence of the House of Tudor, who won, in 1485.
What did Europe lack in most of the 15th century?
Lack of centralization in most of fifteenth-century Europe
_____ flourished, such as Venice. (Think type of city)
City-states flourished, such as Venice
What does renaissance mean?
What kind of approach did scholars and artist develop to the arts, science, and literature?
Scholars and artists developed a humanist approach to arts, science, literature. Humanism is aspiration to know more about the human experience beyond what the Christian scriptures offered.
Who did the scholars look towards for a humanist approach?
Looked to ancient Greek and Roman knowledge to understand human experience, humanism
What were the sources of the Renaissance?
Commercial prosperity, New monarchs and wealthy merchants patronized the arts, Printing press.
What was the outcome of the Renaissance?
Outcome was more access to education for women, Some non-nobles began to gain social influence (printing press)
What were the Republic of letters?
A network of correspondents who were more interested in individual knowledge or talent than in noble titles or clerical rank.
What did this group of corresponding scholars and artists cause among the church?
Conflict with secular and religious authorities
What came about from this network of educated men and women?
Educated group arose that was not dependent on church or state. This meant they had the means to challenge political, clerical, and aesthetic authority.
Because of this criticism, what evolved regarding politics?
New forms of political ideology evolved
Who did the Renaissance most affect?
Not the common people. Mostly nobility.
What devastated China during the 1300's?
Famine and Black Death devastated China
Who were the rulers during that time period? Were they effective?
Yuan Mongol rulers ineffective.
Was there resistance to the Yuan dynasty? Who resisted?
Red Turban Movement most prominent
Who was the leader of the Red Turban? What did he accomplish?
Leader Zhu Yuanzhang (Hongwu) drove Mongols from China
What did Hongwu found?
Ming dynasty founded by Zhu Yuanzhang in 1368
____ relocated the capital to ____.
Capital relocated from Nanjing to Beijing by Yongle.
What was the name of the palace city?
The palace city called the Forbidden City
What was one of the methods that Hongwu consolidated power?
Marriage and kinship increased Ming power. He married the daughter of a leading Red Turban rebel, removing a threat.
How did Hongwu initial rule his empire? Why didn't it work?
First sought to rule through kinsmen. However, the princes' power began to threaten the court.
What system of government did Hongwu then implement in his government?
To avoid rivals created an imperial bureaucracy (non-elected officials who rule)
How many officials did the Ming dynasty have? What was the population?
10,000 to 15,000 officials, 200 million people
What was the way that officials were appointed to office?
Hongwu reestablished Confucian school system with civil service examination. Outstanding performance determined appointments.
Why was the social hierarchy that Hongwu create important?
Social hierarchy forced all officials to answer to emperor. Drawbacks were that he had to keep tabs on this immense system.
What were three steps that Hongwu take to centralize the government?
He assigned bureaucrats to oversee the manufacture of porcelain, cotton, and silk products, as wells as tax collection. Confucian school system as a means of selecting loyal officials. He also set up local village networks to reclaim land.
What was one of the ways that the emperors legitimized their rule?
Emperors used religion to legitimize rule
What was one of the conflicts between religious cults?
Conflict between state-sanctioned religious cults and Buddhist monasteries. Officials siphoned revenues to monasteries.
What role did religion play in government?
Religion played minor role in government.
What was the social hierarchy that the dynasty managed people based on?
Social hierarchy established to manage people based on sex, age, and kinship
What were some of the problems that the Ming Dynasty faced?
Terror and repression threatened rule
Was the empire governed well?
Empire remained under-governed
What did Chinese merchants establish in respect to trade?
Merchants reestablished long-distance commercial exchange
Where did trade spread to?
Trade spread to offshore islands and Southeast Asia
Did the emperors support trade?
Emperors suspicious of long-distance trade. Hongwu feared that too much contact with the outside world would cause instability and undermine his rule.
What measures were taken to stop private maritime commerce?
Official, but seldom enforced, ban on maritime commerce in 1371. However, by the late 15th century trade once again surged.
What was the consequence of the thriving business of maritime trade?
Because of much of the thriving business took place in defiance of official edicts, it led to constant friction between government and maritime traders.
Which emperor financed a series of successful expeditions?
Yongle Emperor financed a series of successful expeditions.
Who led these expeditions
Led by Zheng He, a eunuch admiral.
What was the purpose of these expeditions throughout the Indian Ocean?
Attempted to establish tributary relations throughout the Indian Ocean. He would make people give the Chinese nice exotica.
Why were the voyages canceled?
Voyages canceled after threat from Mongols reappeared in the north.
What was the consequence of China's abrupt withdrawal of imperial support of maritime ventures?
Led to decline of Chinese naval power and vacuum left opened the way for newcomers and rivals.
Why was the recovery of northern Europe delayed after the plague?
Lack of access to lucrative trade routes, in addition to internal feuding, regional warfare, and (after 1517) religious fragmentation.
Who did Portuguese Christians devote themselves to fighting?
The Moors, the Muslim occupants of North Africa, the western Sahara, and the Iberian Peninsula.
Once the Muslims were defeated, who lead the conquest that followed? And what people were next?
Joao I defeated the Castilians, a group of people who lived in what is now part of present-day Spain.
What was the consequence of defeating the Castilians?
The monarchy could seek new territories and trading opportunities in the North Atlantic and along the West African coasts.
//incas, columbian exchange, spaniard stuff