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Science: Unit 21
Terms in this set (121)
What is an organic compound?
A compound that contains carbon
What is a hydrocarbon?
a compound made of hydrogen and carbon atoms only
What is a saturated hydrocarbon?
the simplest form of hydrocarbons that contains only single bonds
What is an unsaturated hydrocarbon?
a hydrocarbon that contains one double or triple bond between two carbons
What is an isomer?
compounds with the same formula but different arrangements and properties
What is benzene?
a colorless hydrocarbon found in petroleum and tar
What is a substituted hydrocarbon?
when atoms of other elements replace the hydrogen in a hydrocarbon
What is an alcoholic compound?
an organic compound that contains one or more hydroxyl (hydroxide)
What is an aromatic compound?
A compound that contains one or more benzene rings
What are the four simplest types of hydrocarbons?
methane, ethane, propane, butane
What is the chemical formula for methane?
What is the chemical formula for ethane?
What is the chemical formula for propane?
What is the chemical formula for butane?
When a hydrocarbon ends in -ane, that means it contains _________ bonds.
When a hydrocarbon ends in -ene, that means it contains a _________ bond(s).
When a hydrocarbon ends in -yne, that means it contains a _________ bond(s).
True or False: Carbon is only found in organic compounds.
What element is the basis of all life?
How many separate covalent bonds can carbon form?
How many separate covalent bonds can hydrogen form?
How many separate covalent bonds can oxygen form?
___________ __________ allow carbon to form complex compounds.
What are the three different arrangements that carbon can form?
chain, branched chain, ring
True or False: Hydrocarbons are non-polar molecules.
What is the main component in natural gas?
True or false: Ionic bonds mix with polar molecules.
What percent of energy from humans comes from hydrocarbon products (such as methane or propane)?
True or false: Methene is a hydrocarbon with one carbon and a double bond.
What is the chemical formula for ethene?
What is the chemical formula for ethyne?
What are the three types of hydrocarbons?
saturated, unsaturated, and polyunsaturated
What does it mean for a hydrocarbon to be saturated?
it is holding as many hydrogens as possible (single bonded)
What does it mean for a hydrocarbon to be unsaturated?
it can hold more hydrogens (double or triple bonded)
What is fractional distillation?
when oil is boiled in order to separate it
How do salt domes form?
polar and non-polar molecules mix to form a salt dome with oil pockets inside
What is another name for ethene?
What does it mean for a hydrocarbon to be polyunsaturated?
it contains more than one double or triple bond
What is the chemical symbol for a benzene ring?
a hexagon with a circle inside of it
What is Triaminic?
a medicine made up of three fused benzene rings
What tells you how many benzene rings a molecule contains?
What is the basic building block to medicine?
What is the chemical formula for benzene?
Which of the following is an example of a polyunsaturated molecule?
Which of the following does not exist?
What type of molecule is COOH?
What can a molecule be classified as if it has COOH attached to it?
How many covalent bonds can hydroxide form?
What can a molecule be classified as if it is a substituted hydrocarbon with nitrogen?
Brain teaser: What is the base of glycine? (hint: NH2,CH2,COOH)
What does the prefix iso mean?
True or False: Butane and isobutane have the same chemical formula.
Which of the following has a branched structure?
D. All of the above
Which of the following has a chain structure?
D. A and B
The boiling point of hydrocarbons __________ as the number of carbons in the chain increase.
Isomers have a _______ freezing point.
What type of compound produces smelly products?
Pure benzene is _________.
A. used in medicines
B. used in pet food
D. none of the above
What type of aromatic compound is used in mothballs?
When nitrogen bonds with three hydrogens, how many valence electrons will it have?
What do all aromatic compounds have in common?
they have a benzene ring for a base
True or False: Substituted hydrocarbons have the same properties as the original.
Which of the following is an example of a substituted hydrocarbon?
B. rubbing alcohol
D. both B and C
What is ethanol?
an alcohol produced by the fermentation of sugar in grains and fruit that is found in many alcoholic beverages
What is the chemical formula for ethanol?
What is an organic acid?
an organic compound that contains one or more carboxyl (COOH)
What are three types of organic acids?
acetic acid, citric acid, lactic acid
What is acetic acid found in?
What is citric acid found in?
oranges and lemons
What is lactic acid found in?
How does tetrachloroethylene form?
When four chlorine atoms replace the hydrogen in ethene
What is the chemical formula for tetrachloroethylene?
What is tetrachloroethylene used for?
dry cleaner solvents
True or False- Other nonmetals make up stronger substituted hydrocarbons than how hydrogen makes up hydrocarbons.
What elements can be substituted in a hydrocarbon?
oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, and the halogens
What is mercaptan?
a sulfur based compound found in skunk spray
What is the source of all carbon compounds?
What is petroleum?
a dark, flammable liquid found deep within the earth
What is another name for petroleum?
What does petroleum form from?
Shorter chains of hydrocarbons have a _________ boiling point.
In fractional distillation, what are the lightest fuels found on the top?
propane and butane
What is below the light fuels in fractional distillation?
compounds with 5-10 carbons that are used in gasoline and solvents
What is below the gasoline in fractional distillation?
compounds with 12-18 carbons that are used in jet fuels and kerosene
In fractional distillation, what is found at the bottom?
What are the five layers in a cap rock?
salt, gas (simple hydrocarbons), oil, water, igneous rock
What are three possible future fuels?
wind energy, wave power, and nuclear power
How are polymers, proteins, monomers, and amino acids related?
Polymers are made up of monomers, an example of a monomer is an amino acid, amino acids make up proteins, an example of a polymer is a protein
What are polymers?
long chains of petroleum monomers
How is polyethylene formed?
when ethylene combines with itself to form a polymer
Are polyethylene and polypropylene saturated or unsaturated?
What is polyethylene?
a plastic that is not biodegradable or recyclable
What do most plastic bottles and plastic bags contain?
What is polypropylene used for?
glue and carpets
True or False: All polymers have the same properties.
True or False: More branched out polymers will have more similar properties to the original.
Which of the following is an example of a polymer?
A. flex (bullet proof vest)
B. foam cup
C. Both A and B
D. None of the above
What type of compound does all life depend on?
Which of the following is the most healthy?
C. all nutrients
D. none of the above
What do proteins make up in the body?
muscles, tendons, hair, and fingernails
What percent of body weight is protein?
What is the amine group in an amino acid?
What is the carboxylic group in an amino acid?
What type of bond holds amino acids together?
True or False- NH2CH2COOH is an amino acid.
What does DNA stand for?
What controls a person's cell activity?
What are nucleotides?
building blocks of nucleic acids
What do nucleotides contain?
sugar, phosphate, and a base
What is the twisted ladder shape of DNA called?
True or False: Identical twins have the same DNA.
What is a carbohydrate?
a compound made up of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms that is a major source of energy for the human body
Carbohydrates have ________ as many hydrogen atoms than oxygen atoms.
What are two main groups of carbohydrates?
sugars and starches
What is another name for sugar?
Where is most sucrose found in the body?
In the bloodstream
Does sucrose give quick or long lasting energy?
What does sucrose break down into?
glucose and fructose
What is used by athletes to get long lasting energy?
What do starches break down into?
What is the stored starch found in the liver and other body tissues called?
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