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Reflexive Behavior & Respondent Conditioning (Ch 3)
Terms in this set (37)
Behavior that is dependent on survival. (e.g. Breathing, digesting food, moving about.)
Ex. Worm Dangled over chicks mouth
Ex. Rubbing a baby's cheek (rooting response)
Behavior Relations that are based on the genetic endowment of an organism.
Characteristics and genes that aided previous generations in survival are passed down to offspring and allowed for similar behavior
Fixed Action Patterns
A series of connected movements (sequences of behavior) that are phylogenic in nature
are phylogenetic sequences of behavior. an environmental stimulus sets off behavior that produces stimuli that set off the next set of responses in the sequence;these behaviors produce the next set of stimuli, and so on.
An unconditioned response (behavior) that follows the presentation of an unconditioned stimulus
Ex. Rooting Response
Ex. Salivating to food
Law of Threshold
A point of increasing intensities at which a response is elicited
Law of Intensity-Magnitude
Relationship between the intensity of the eliciting stimulus and the magnitude of the elicited response
Law of Latency
The time between the presentation of the stimulus and the appearance of the reflexive response
The Primary Laws of the Reflex
Law of Threshold, Law of Intensity-magnitude, Law of Latency
Occurs when an unconditioned stimulus repeatedly elicits an unconditioned response and the response gradually declines in magnitude.
Ex. Living by an airport
Behavior of an organism that is affected by environmental experience
The acquisition, maintenance, and change of an organisms behavior as a result of lifetime events
aka Classical Conditioning. The transfer of the control of behavior from one stimulus to another by S -> S pairing
(CS) -> (UCS) -> (UCR->CR)
A response that is elicited by the conditioned stimulus
First Order Conditioning
An apparently neutral stimulus is paired with an unconditioned stimulus
Conditioned Taste Aversion (CTA)
pairing of a conditioned stimulus with an (aversive) unconditioned response upon which an organism will show avoidance towards the conditioned stimulus
*Used to treat alcohol/smoking addictions
Conditioned Place Preference (CPP)
Conditioned Stimulus is a specific location paired with an Unconditioned Stimulus
Ex. Pairing of a sweet solution in a chamber with red lights, and no solution in chamber with white lights. Organism shows preference for chamber with red lights.
Contiguity of Stimuli
Where events occur in time and increase/decrease conditioning effectiveness
CS is presented a few seconds before the US. Shown to be the most effective conditioning method
CS and US are presented at the same time. Produces weaker conditioned response
CS is presented on and off for a brief time before the US occurs. Produces weaker conditioned response.
US comes on and goes off before the CS is presented.
What are the two least effective temporal relations?
Trace and Backward conditioning
The tendency for a system to remain stable and resist change
Refers to the regulation of the system by negative feedback loops
Ex. Warming and cooling of the environment activates the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems to reduce any drift from the normal body temperature.
Drug Tolerance as a result of a conditioned response
Heroin user takes drug in the same environment, eventually needing more and more of the drug to feel the desired effect. Environmental stimuli (CS) signal the drug coming on board. Body begins engagin in preparatory responses (heart rate, temperature, respiration.)
*Helps explain overdose as it typically occurs in new environments absent of CS's predicting onset of drug.
Second Order Conditioning
Pairing a second stimulus (CS2) with an already functioning conditioned stimulus (CS1)
Extends the range of behavior effects produced by respondent conditioning.
Ex. Some phobic reactions - person fears bees (CS1) because in the past the person has been stung. Outside on the patio there are flowers (CS2) where bees hover around. The phobic fear of flowers (CS2) occurs because of the pairing of bees (CS1)
Aspect of Second Order Conditioning
Two conditioned stimuli are presented together before (delayed) or during (simultaneous) the US.
Two compound stimuli presented at the same time where one "overshadows" the other
Ex. A faint light with a loud tone, where the tone overshadows the conditioning to the light
Effect related to overshadowing, where one CS paired with a US prevents a subsequent CS-US association.
A subsection of blocking
A previously neutral stimulus paired with an aversive US, such as electric shock. After several pairings, the original neutral stimulus comes to elicit a conditional emotional response (CER), such as fear or anxiety.
Ex. Seeing a picture of a white rabbit, then being slapped in the face. After several pairings, one begins to fear the picture of the rabbit.
Rescorla - Wagner Conditioning
Behavioral theory absent of any underlying cognitive/informational processing
The conditioned stimulus acquires a limited amount of strength (associative strength) on any trial
Relation between the CS and the magnitude of the CR
Involves repeatedly presenting the CS and not presenting the US
The difference between Extinction as a procedure and Extinction as a behavior
Procedure: presenting the CS but not the US
Behavior: The decline in strength of the CR when extinction procedure is in effect
The observation of an increase in the CR after Respondent Extinction has occurred.
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