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Terms in this set (47)
Members of a population share a common group of genes.
The number of times in a little occurs in a gene pool compared with the number of times other alleles for the same gene occur.
Uses three main sources, mutations, genetic recombination during sexual reproduction him, and lateral gene transfer.
Any change in the sequence of DNA
Occurs during meiosis one each chromosome in a pair moves independently. Also during crossing over in meiosis
Lateral gene transfer
The passing of genes from one organism to another organism that is not it's offspring.
Single gene trait
Controlled by one gene
Controlled by two or more genes and each gene often has two or more alleles.
True or false, natural selection works on an organisms phenotype rather than its genotype.
Tour false. A gene pool typically contains different phenotypes for each heritable trait.
If the total number of individuals in the population is 25 what is the total number of alleles?
Review 17.1 packet on computer for maximum comprehension of several populations and their heterozygous and homozygous traits.
How are you geneticist be able to tell the population is evolving?
The frequency of alleles will change.
Can you determine whether an allele is dominant or recessive on the basis of the ratio of phenotypes in the population?
No, because the phenotypic ratio depends on the allele frequency is of a dominant and recessive allele's.
How do you mutations affect evolution?
Mutations only affect evolution when they affect germ line cells that produce eggs or sperm.
How does sexual reproduction affect a population is genetic variation?
It can produce many different phenotypes through the production of new and unique genetic combinations.
Identify two ways in which genes can be recombined are in meiosis.
Independent assortment of chromosomes, and by Gene swapping.
How does lateral gene transfer affect variation?
Lateral gene transfer increases your you should want to species picks up new genes from a different species.
True or false? The number of phenotypes produced for a given trait depends on how many genes control trait.
True or false? Height humans is an example of a single gene trait.
True or false? Each gene of a polygenic traits often has two or more phenotypes.
True or false? A single polygenic traits often has many possible genotypes.
A symmetrical bell shaped graph is typically used for polygenic traits. True or false?
Why is genetic variation important to the process of evolution?
Genetic variation is the wrong material of illusion, which can lead to different members of a population having different levels of fitness in a certain environment.
Takes place when individuals at one end of the bell curve have higher fitness than those in the middle or at the other end of the curve.
Takes place when individuals near the middle of the curve have higher fitness than individuals at the ends
Takes place when individuals at the upper and lower ends of the curve have higher fitness than individuals near the middle.
The bottleneck effect
A change in allele frequency following a dramatic reduction in the population size
The founder effect
I change in allele frequency that may occur when a few individuals from a population migrate and colonize a new habitat.
A time when evolution does not occur, very rare
The Hardy Weinberg principle
States that Leo frequencies in a population should remain constant unless one or more factors cause those frequencies to change.
The process in which an individual chooses its mate based on heritable traits
If a trait made an organism less likely to survive and reproduce, what would happen to the allele for that trait?
If you were copies of the allele would pass to future generations and the allele could even disappear from the gene pool completely.
If I trade had no affect on an organisms fitness, what would likely happen to the allele for that trait?
The allele would not be under pressure from natural selection, and it's frequency would probably stay about the same.
Refer to Chapter 17.2 packet for complete explanation of evolution of a population of mice.
What effect does stabilizing selection have on variation in a population?
Stabilizing selection would generally reduce the variation in a population.
Random changes in allele frequencies
List the five conditions that can disturb genetic equilibrium and cause of evolution to occur.
Nonrandom meeting, small populations size, immigration or emigration, mutations, and natural selection.
The formation of new species
Occurs when members of two populations cannot interbreed and produce fertile offspring.
Occurs when populations of different courtship rituals or other behaviors involved in reproduction.
Occurs when populations are separated by geographic barriers.
Occurs when populations reproduce at different times
What must happen in order for a new species to evolve?
Populations must be reproductively isolated from one another.
Peter and Rosemary Grant spent years on the Galapagos islands studying changes in what populations?
The many Finch characteristics appeared and bell shaped distribution's this is typical of what traits?
Why must reproductive isolation occur. Four separate populations of the same species to vault into different species?
Reproductive isolation must occur so that the gene pools are isolated. When the gene pools are isolated, changes that occur in one gene pool will not be carried over to the other gene pool. Plus, overtime, I can be a gene pool changes can produce a new species.
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