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Global Chapter 8 Sections 2, 3, 4
Terms in this set (42)
a loosely organized system of rule in which powerful local lords divided their landholdings among lesser lords
someone who pledged service and loyalty to the greater lord
the relationship between lords and vassals that were established by custom tradition and by an exchange of pledges
a code of conduct adopted by knights
a wandering poet
peasant bound to the land
What obligations did lords and vassals have under the feudal system?
The lord was to grant a fief, or an estate, to his vassals as long as the vassal stayed loyal to his lord and provide him 40 days of military service, money and advice. The lord was also to protect his vassals and give them peasants to work their land to make it a fair trade.
How did the code of chivalry affect medieval ideas about women?
The code of chivalry offered women protection and made them feel cherished. Women were to be respected and admired.
What responsibilities did the peasant have toward the lord of a manor?
Peasants were to work many days tending to the land of the lord. They did jobs such as repairing fences, bridges and roads. Peasants had to pay a fee to their lord when they married, inherited land or used the mill for grinding grain.
What responsibilities did the lord of the manor have towards the peasants?
The lord was to give peasants with land to farm for themselves and protection from raids and warfare from other tribes. They were promised food, housing and land.
How did the breakdown of central authority in Europe lead to the development of feudalism?
Because of all the attacks of the Vikings and Muslims after the fall of Rome, European empires became worse and weakened. Citizens began to looks for protection and resources for themselves. They found protection in the system known as feudalism.
the sacred rites of the Church
tax equal to a tenth of their income
worldly force in medieval Europe, concerning earthly events
authority over all secular rulers
body of laws of a church
exclusion from the Catholic church as a penalty for refusing to follow church laws
in the Roman Catholic church, excommunication of an entire town, region or kingdom
the selling of Church offices
monks who did not live in isolated monasteries but traveled around Europe's growing towns preaching to the poor
prejudice against Jews
How did the Church shape medieval times?
The Church was a social center as well as a place of worship. It helped to protect women and taught others than in God's eyes women and men are equal. The Church also held important historical manuscripts.
How did monks and nuns help build Christian civilization in Europe?
Monks and nuns set up schooling for children, helped the sick and offered food to travelers.
Why did Jewish communities flourish in Spain?
Jews flourished in Spain because Muslim rulers respected them and allowed them to develop their culture.
written document that sets out the rights and privileges of the town
money for investment
group of merchants who joined together to finance a large-scale venture that would have been too costly for any individual trader
bill of exchange
issued by a banker in one city to a merchant who could exchange it for cash in a distant city, thus freeing him from traveling with gold, which was easily stolen
someone who would pay rent to a lord in order to farm the land
new class of people, including merchants, traders and artisans - who stood between peasants and nobles
lending money at interest
associations formed by merchants and artisans in medieval towns
trainee to a guild master
What were two effects of the agricultural revolution that took place during the Middle Ages?
New technologies such as the iron plow, an updated horse harness, and a windmill were just some of the inventions made during the Middle Ages. These farming technologies helped transform Europe's countryside into a productive industry. Other revolutions during the Middle Ages helped food production. These included the three-field system; each field had a different type of crop, and clearing more land to create more room to harvest.
What new ways of doing business evolved in the Middle Ages?
Europeans created modern ways of doing business. These new techniques included partnerships, systems of insurance and a bill of exchange. A partnership began with a group of merchants who joined their funds to finance a large-scale endeavor that would be too expensive for any single trader. Secondly, a system of insurance was developed by merchants to help reduce business ricks. Lastly, the bill of exchange was when a merchant deposited money with a banker in his homeland. That banker than issued a bill of exchange, where the merchant gets cash from a different city. The bill of exchange is basically the same technique we use today when we travel to foreign places and have to get our money changed, for example from U.S. dollars to euros.
How did a merchant guild differ from a craft guild?
A merchant guild worked for the town, passing laws and imposing taxes. They were the ones to decide what public works needed to be done, such as paving streets or creating a new town hall. A craft guild was a worker who functioned as a weaver, baker, brewer or goldsmith.
How did the guilds improve life for townspeople?
Guilds improved life for citizens in many ways. Guilds set rules to protect the value of their goods, control work hours and set prices. Guilds also provided social services like schools and hospitals.
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