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32 terms

radian

an alternative unit for measuring angles

kelvin

unit of thermodynamic temperature

linear momentum

the product of mass and velocity

net force on a body

rate of change of its momentum

impulse of a force

force multiplied by the time for which the force acts

centripetal force

the net force on acting on an object moving in a circle; it is always directed towards the centre of the circle

gravitational field strength

force per unit mass

displacement

distance from an equilibrium position

amplitude

maximum displacement

period

the time taken for one complete oscillation of a vibrating object

frequency

number of oscillations per unit time

angular frequency

2 x pi x frequency

phase difference

the fraction of an oscillation between the vibrations of two oscillating particles (expressed in degrees or radians)

pressure

force per unit area

internal energy

the sum of the random distribution of kinetic and potential energies associated with the molecules of a system

latent heat of fusion

the thermal energy required to turn a solid into a liquid at constant temperature

latent heat of vaporisation

the thermal energy required to turn a liquid into a gas at constant temperature

Newton's first law

a body will remain at rest or continue to move with constant velocity unless acted upon by a force

Newton's second law

Rate of change of momentum is equal to the net force acting and takes place in the direction of that force.

Newton's third law

when one body exerts a force on another, the other body exerts an equal (in magnitude) and opposite (in direction) force on the first body

equilibrium

resultant force is zero

principle of conservation of momentum

total momentum is constant for a closed system

perfectly elastic collision

a collision with no loss of kinetic energy

inelastic collision

a collision with some loss of kinetic energy

Newton's law of gravitation

force between two masses is proportional to the product of the masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them

geostationary orbit

an equatorial orbit with a period of 24 hrs, moving from west to east

Kepler's third law

the cube of a planet's distance from the Sun is proportional to the square of its orbital period

simple harmonic motion

acceleration is directly proportional to displacement and is directed in the opposite direction to the displacement

thermal equilibrium

no net heat flow between objects

absolute zero

the temperature at which a substance has minimum internal energy

specific heat capacity

the energy required per unit mass of a substance to raise its temperature by 1K

Boyle's law

pressure is inversely proportional to volume for a fixed mass of gas at a constant temperature