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20 terms

Head and Neck Anatomy - The Tongue

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Development of the tongue
begins at 4 1/2 weeks of embryonic life.
The tongue starts to develop as
a swelling that arises out of the back part of the pharyngeal arches.
Anterior 2/3rd of the tongue develops from the
ectoderm
Posterior 1/3rd of the tongue develops from the
endoderm
Muscles of the tongue arise from the
mesoderm
The muscles of the tongue are skeletal muscles or
voluntary striated muscles
Intrinsic muscles of the tongue
start and end inside the tongue.
*Extrinsic muscles of the tongue
start outside and run into the tongue.
Intrinsic-Superior longitudinal group:
runs from anterior to posterior. Lies near dorsum of the tongue.
Intrinsic-Inferior longitudinal group:
runs anterior to posterior. Lies near bottom or vent rum of the tongue.
Intrinsic-Transverse group:
funs from side to side
Intrinsic-Vertical group:
runs from dorsal to central surface of tongue (stands up).
*Extrinsic muscles
1) Hyoglossus
*2) Styloglossus
*3) Palatoglossus
*4) Genioglossus
Circumvallate papillae
V-shaped row of about 13 circular raised papillae. Located about 2/3rd of the way back on the tongue with the point of the V facing posteriorly.
This divides the tongue into anterior 2/3rd and posterior 1/3rd. It CONTAINS taste buds. Has von Ebner glands.
von Ebner glands
small salivary glands present beneath the circumvallate papillae.
Fungiform papillae
present on the anterior 2/3rd of the tongue. They CONTAINS taste buds.
Filiform papillae
present on the anterior 2/3rd of the tongue. They DO NOT contain taste buds. They provide tactile sensation.
Foliate papillae
present on the lateral surface of the tongue. They contain a FEW taste buds.
Hairy tongue
long papillae on the tongue that can trap food and pigmentations. Mainly filiform and fungiform.
Glossitis (inflammation)
papillae loose epithelium and the tongue becomes smooth (vitamin deficiencies).