Simsbury IPS Thermal Expansion and Ideal Gas Law

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Terms in this set (...)

Linear Expansion
Things Can Get Longer or Shorter
Area Expansion
Length and Width Change
Three Types of Thermal Expansion of Solids
1. Linear Expansion
2. Area Expansion
3. Volume Expansion
When something expands does the mass change?
No
Linear Expansion Equation
Change in Length = COTE x Original Length x Change in temperature (Celsius or Kelvin)
Unit for COTE
1/Degree Celsius
What C.O.T.E. Stands For
Coefficient of Thermal Expansion
Fahrenheit to Celsius
(Temperature Fahrenheit - 32) / 1.8
Celsius to Fahrenheit
(1.8 x Temperature Celsius) + 32
Celsius to Kelvin
Temperature Celsius + 273
Ideal Gas Law
(Pressure 1 x Volume 1) / Temperature 1 = (Pressure 2 x Volume 2) / Temperature 2
Pressure
Force Per Area
Temperature Unit for Ideal Gas Law
Kelvin
Units for Pressure for Ideal Gas Law
-Pounds per square inch
-Newtons per meter squared
-Millimeters of mercury
-It can basically be any unit as long as both the pressures are the same
Absolute Zero
-Zero kinetic energy
-Particles are completely still and aren't moving
-Experimentally, we've never actually achieved absolute zero
Conduction
-The transfer of energy through matter by direct contact of particles; the movement of heat or electricity through a substance
-Thermal energy travels as heat from a material at greater temperature to a material at lower temperature
Convection
The transfer of energy through matter by movements of the matter itself, as in air or water currents
Radiation
The transfer of energy through matter or space by electromagnetic waves such as heat, light, radio waves, x rays, and gamma rays
Insulators
Don't allow heat or electricity to move easily through them
Simplest Type of Heating System
One in which fuel is burned right in the area to be heated, such as in a stove or fireplace. The energy released by the burning fuel is transferred to the surrounding air by conduction, convection, and radiation
Radiator
-A device with a large surface area that transfers heat to surrounding air by conduction
-Convection currents then circulate the heat in the radiator to all parts of the room
-Some radiators are heated by electricity but most are set up so that fuel is burned in a furnace, and the heat is transported to radiators throughout the building. The furnace uses the energy to heat water, which is then pumped through the pipes to the radiators. After the water cools, it's returned to the furnace to be heated again
Forced Air System
Energy released in the furnace is used to heat air. A blower forces the heated air through a system of large pipes, called ducts, to openings, called vents, in each room. In the rooms the warm air circulates by convection. Cooler air passes through other vents and ducts to the furnace to be heated
Solar Energy
Energy from the sun, which includes heat, light, radio, ultraviolet, gamma, and other waves
Passive Solar Heating
-Use no fans or mechanical devices to transfer heat from one area to another.
-Some materials in the system absorb radiant energy during the day, convert it to thermal energy, and radiate the thermal energy after dark
-A house with a passive solar heating system usually has a wall of large windows on the south side to receive maximum light
-The other exterior walls are heavily insulated and have few windows
-During the day, sunlight passes through the windows and is absorbed by some material, such as water or concrete
Active Solar Heating System
Includes solar collectors, which are usually installed on the roof or south side of a building
Solar Collector
A device that absorbs radiant energy from the sun
Example of a Solar Collector
Black metal plate absorbs energy from sun; glass or plastic sheets reduce energy loss due to convection; water filled pipes are located just beneath metal plate; radiant energy is absorbed and converted to thermal energy to heat the water in the pipes; a pump circulates the heated water to radiators in the system; cooled water is returned to the collector to be reheated
Thermal Pollution
-Pollution caused when waste thermal energy raises the temperature of the environment
-Is a particular problem in areas where power plants and factories use water to cool their buildings and equipment, warming the water in the process
-Can be reduced by releasing small amounts of warm water mixed with plenty of cooler water
Cooling Tower
A tower-shaped device in which water is cooled by fans or evaporation; used in factories and power plants
Heat Engine
A device that converts thermal energy into mechanical energy by burning fuel in a process called combustion; for example, an automobile engine
Combustion
Rapid oxidation, or burning
Internal Combustion Engine
-An engine in which fuels burned inside chambers (cylinders); for example, an automobile engine like gasoline and diesel engine
-Each cylinder has 2 openings that open or close with valves
-A piston inside each cylinder moves up and down, turning a rod called a crankshaft
-The motion of the crankshaft is transferred to the wheels of the car through a series of moving parts
-The wheels exert a force on the road, through the tires
-The equal and opposite force of the road on the tires accelerates the car forward
Intake Stroke
In another part of the engine called the carburetor, gasoline is broken into fine droplets and mixed with air. In the cylinder, the intake valve opens and the piston moves downward, drawing the fuel air mixture into the cylinder
Compression Stroke
The intake valve closes, and the piston moves up. The fuel-air mixture is squeezed, or compressed, into a smaller space
Power Stroke
When the piston is almost at the top of the cylinder, a spark plug produces a hot spark that ignites the fuel air mixture. As the mixture burns, hot gases expand, forcing the piston down. Energy's transferred from the piston to the wheels of the car through the crankshaft and other moving parts
Exhaust Stroke
The piston moves up again, compressing the waste products from burning the fuel air mixture. The exhaust valve opens to let them out
External Combustion Engine
An engine in which the fuel is burned outside the engine, and energy from it is used to operate the engine; for example, an old fashioned steam engine
Heat Mover
A device that removes thermal energy from one location and transfers it to another location having a different temperature; for example, a refrigerator, air conditioner, or heat pump
How Refrigerators Work
-Refrigerators use the process of evaporation to remove heat from the food inside.
-A liquid is pumped through coils inside the fridge.
-In most cooling systems, liquid Freon is used because it evaporates at low temperatures.
-As the liquid evaporates and becomes a gas, it absorbs heat, cooling the inside of the refrigerator.
-The Freon gas is then pumped into a compressor on the outside of the fridge.
-Compressing the Freon causes its temperature to rise above room temperature so the Freon loses heat to the air around it and becomes liquid again.
-The excess heat is transferred into the room, sometimes with the help of fans
Heat Pump
-A two-way heat mover that pumps heat out of a building in warm weather and into a building in cold weather
-In cold weather, it removes thermal energy from the cool outside air and transfers it to the inside of the house
Temperature
The average kinetic energy of particles
Fluid
Any material that can flow
Stroke
The up or down movement of the piston in an engine
4 Kinds of Strokes in an Internal Combustion Engine
1. Intake stroke
2. Compression stroke
3. Power stroke
4. Exhaust stroke

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