Senior Thesis Exit Exam

Cognitive psychologist
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Terms in this set (100)
HippocampusA complex brain structure embedded deep into the temporal lobe. It has a major role in learning and memory. It is a plastic and vulnerable structure that gets damaged by a variety of stimuli.MedullaThe lowest part of the brain and the lowest portion of the brainstem. It's a key conduit for nerve signals to and from your body because it is located where the brain and spinal cord connect. It also helps control vital processes like your heartbeat, breathing and blood pressure.Limbic systemThe part of the brain involved in our behavioral and emotional responses, especially when it comes to behaviors we need for survival.Jean Piaget's stages of cognitive developmentSensorimotor stage: Birth to 2 years. Preoperational stage: Ages 2 to 7. Concrete operational stage: Ages 7 to 11. Formal operational stage: Ages 12 and up.Industrial-organizational psychologyAn applied discipline within psychology, is the science of human behavior in the workplacePhobiaAn extreme or irrational fear of or aversion to somethingPanic disorderAn anxiety disorder characterized by unexpected and repeated episodes of intense fear accompanied by physical symptoms that may include chest pain, heart palpitations, shortness of breath, dizziness, or abdominal distress.SchizophreniaA disorder that affects a person's ability to think, feel, and behave clearly.PsychosisA mental disorder characterized by a disconnection from realityStereotypeAn unfair and sometimes untrue belief that many people have about all people or things with a particular characteristic.Cognitive SchemaA mental structure that an individual uses to organize knowledge and guide cognitive processes and behavior.Sleep disorderConditions that impair your sleep or prevent you from getting restful sleep and, as a result, can cause daytime sleepiness and other symptomsNarcolepsyA chronic sleep disorder that causes overwhelming daytime drowsinessInsomniaA persistent problem of falling and staying asleep. Most cases of insomnia are related to poor sleep habits, depression, anxiety, lack of exercise, chronic illness, or certain medications.Sleep apneaA serious sleep disorder in which breathing repeatedly stops and starts.List the Stages of Maslow's Hierarchy of needsPhysiological, safety, love and belonging needs, esteem, and self-actualizationDefine the stages of Maslow's hierarchy of needsPsychological needs are basic needs of human survival such as food, water, air, shelter, and sleep. Safety needs include safety and protection. Love and belonging needs are a stage that alludes to a human emotional condition for interpersonal connections and connectedness, Esteem needs are of two types which are internal esteem needs (self-respect, confidence, and competence) and external esteem needs (recognition, attention, and admiration). Self- actualization involves the urge to become what you are capable of becoming, It involves the need for personal growth and self-fulfillment.Harlow's monkey studyThe study in which Harlow took infant monkeys from their biological mothers and gave them two inanimate surrogate mothers: one was a simple construction of wire and wood, and the second was covered in foam rubber and soft terry cloth. The infants were assigned to one of two conditions. In the first, the wire mother had a milk bottle and the cloth mother did not; in the second, the cloth mother had the food while the wire mother had none. In both conditions, Harlow found that the infant monkeys spent significantly more time with the terry cloth mother than they did with the wire mother. When only the wire mother had food, the babies came to the wire mother to feed and immediately returned to cling to the cloth surrogate. Harlow's work showed that infants also turned to inanimate surrogate mothers for comfort when they were faced with new and scary situations.Parts of the ear needed for hearingThe outer ear, the external auditory canal, the tympanic membrane, ossicles (middle ear), along with the cochlea or often referred to as the inner ear.Parts of the eye needed for visionThe cornea, the pupil, the iris, the lens, the retina, and the optic nerveHypothalamusA structure deep in the brain that acts as your body's smart control coordinating center. Its main function is to keep your body in a stable state called homeostasisReticular formationA complex network of brainstem nuclei and neurons that serve as a major integration and relay center for many vital brain systems to coordinate functions necessary for survivalSensation and perceptionThe sensation is input about the physical world obtained by our sensory receptors, and perception is the process by which the brain selects, organizes, and interprets these sensationsObject permanenceThe understanding that objects continue to exist even when they cannot be observedAssimilationThe cognitive process of making new information fit in with your existing understanding of somethingIQ testAn age-graded series of problems whose solution involves arithmetical, memory, and vocabulary skills.Rorschach testA projective psychological test in which subjects' perceptions of inkblots are recorded and then analyzed using psychological interpretation or complex algorithms.Thematic apperception testA projective test for the assessment of children and adults. It is designed to reveal an individual's perception of interpersonal relationshipsMMPIA psychological test that assesses personality traits and psychopathologyPersonality testA method of assessing human personality constructsNeuronThe fundamental units of the brain and nervous systemDendriteThe tree root shaped part of the neuron it's usually shorter and more numerous than axonsNeurotransmitterChemical messenger that carries, boosts, and balance the signals between the neuronsAxonTail like structure of the neuron that joins the cell body at a junction called the axon hillockSomaThe cell body of a neuron and it also contains the nucleus of the cellReflexes during infancyThe infants muscle retraction, involuntary movements, or neurological responses to stimulation or triggersScientific methodMethod of procedures that characterize natural science. Steps include observation, measurements, experiment, formulation, testing, and modification of hypothesisValidityThe quality of being logically or factually soundReliabilityThe degree to which a measurement, calculation's, or specification's results can be accurateMyelin sheathAn insulating layer that forms around the nerves, including the brain and spinal cordTerminal buttonsLocated at the end of the neuron and are responsible for sending the signal on to other neurons.Alzheimer's diseaseA brain disorder that affects memory, thinking and behavior.Factors associated with attractionProximity, mere exposure effect, reciprocity, similarity, and familiarity. Proximity is the physical nearness that is out of your control. Mere Exposure Effect repeated exposure to something breeds liking. Reciprocity is the practice of exchanging things with others for mutual benefit. Similarity states that people tend to organize objects with similar qualities into a perceptual group and interpret them as a whole. states that people tend to organize objects with similar qualities into a perceptual group and interpret them as a whole. Familiarity is having a close acquaintance with or knowledge of something. Physical Attractiveness is the degree to which a person's physical features are considered aesthetically pleasing.Procedural memoryA category of long-term memory that involves recollections to which a person has no direct conscious awareness.Episodic memoryA category of long-term memory that involves the recollection of specific events, situations, and experiences.PrimingOccurs when an individual's exposure to a certain stimulus influences his or her response to a subsequent stimulus, without any awareness of the connection.ShapingThe use of reinforcement of successive approximations of a desired behavior.Positive reinforcementThe act of rewarding a positive behavior in order to encourage it to happen again in the future.Negative reinforcementThe removal of something negative to strengthen a behavior.Positive correlationAs one variable increases, so does the other variable, and as the first decreases, so does the second.Negative correlationAs one variable increases, the other variable decreases, and as the first decreases, the second increases.ScatterplotA graph in which the values of two variables are plotted along two axes, the pattern of the resulting points revealing any association/correlationHistogramA graph which represents the frequency of a quantitative data or outcomesid, ego, superegoid engages in primary process thinking, which is primitive, illogical, irrational, and fantasy oriented. ego is the only part of the conscious personality. It's what the person is aware of when they think about themselves, and is what they usually try to project toward others. superego is a part of the unconscious that is the voice of conscience (doing what is right) and the source of self-criticism.conditioned stimulus, unconditioned stimulusA conditioned stimulus is a previously neutral stimulus. In contrast, an unconditioned stimulus is a stimulus that triggers a natural and automatic response. Moreover, a conditioned stimulus triggers a learned response while an unconditioned stimulus triggers a response that requires no prior learning.conditioned response, unconditioned responseUnconditioned response is innate and natural, it does not have to be learned. A Conditioned response is learned only when an unconditioned stimulus has become linked in an individual's mind with a conditioned stimulus.EncodingInvolves information entering our memory system from sensory input. This crucial first step in creating a new memory involves perceiving something through our senses and then having the brain process it into memorable information.Kohlberg's stages of moral developmentLevel 1 (Pre-Conventional) Obedience and punishment orientation (How can I avoid punishment?) Self-interest orientation (What's in it for me?) (Paying for a benefit) Level 2 (Conventional)Interpersonal accord and conformity (Social norms) (The good boy/good girl attitude)Authority and social-order maintaining orientation (Law and order morality) Level 3 (Post-Conventional) Social contract orientation Universal ethical principles (Principled conscience)Classical conditioningProcess involves pairing a previously neutral stimulus (such as the sound of a bell) with an unconditioned stimulus (the taste of food).Operant conditioningFocuses on using either reinforcement or punishment to increase or decrease a behavior.Lithium CarbonatePrescription medicine that is used to treat symptoms of medications. Lithium Carbonate may be used along with other medications.John B. WatsonAn American psychologist who had a huge impact on developing behaviorism.Robert RescorlaAn American psychologist who practiced and specialized in the process of classical conditioning.Alfred BinetFrench psychologist who created IQ tests. Binet believed that intelligence was complex and could not be captured by a single quantitative measure.Bipolar disorderA disorder that causes/results in extreme mood swings that include emotional highs and or lows.PhobiaExtreme or irrational; fear of aversion to somethingSympathetic nervous systemThis system directs the body's rapid involuntary response to dangerous or stressful situations.Parasympathetic nervous systemResponsible for the body's rest and digestion response when the body is relaxed, resting, or feeding.Albert BanduraInfluential social cognitive psychologist who is best known for the social learning theory. Bandura's social learning theory suggests that observation and modeling play a primary role in how and why people learn.Stanley Schachter and Jerome SingerThey both performed a study that tested how people use clues in their environment to explain physiological changes.ToleranceWhen the body gets used to a particular drug and dosage.Alcohol WithdrawalThe symptoms someone will feel when they stop using alcohol.Alcohol dependencyWhen someone is dependent on alcohol to thrive through the day. This is a chronic disease caused by uncontrollable drinking.Independent variableThe variable that does not change.Dependent variableThe variable that changes depending on another variable.Control groupThe group in an experiment that will not receive an experimental treatment. They will remain normal.SynapseThe site of transmission of electric nerve impulses between two nerve cells (neurons) or between a neuron and a gland or muscle cell (effector). It is also known as a neuronal junction.Action potentialthe change in electrical potential associated with the passage of an impulse along the membrane of a muscle cell or nerve cellSolomon Asch and perceptual judgmentsSolomon Asch is a psychologist that had the theory that people conform to what a group says in order to fit in. Perceptual judgment is used to figure out where a person is physically in relation to others.AlgorithmsA process of set rules to be followed in an operation or with problem solving.HeuristicsMental shortcuts that aid in problem solving and probability judgments. These methods are generalizations or rules-of-thumb that lessen cognitive burden and can be useful for making quick decisions; yet, they frequently result in unreasonable or incorrect conclusions.Frequency distributionA graph or data set that shows the probability of occurrence of each conceivable outcome of a repeating event recorded multiple times. Election results and test scores displayed by percentile are simple examples. A frequency distribution could be represented graphically as a histogram or a pie chart.Mean, median, modeA data set's mean (average) is calculated by summing all of the numbers in the set and then dividing by the numbers in the set. When a data collection is arranged from least to greatest, the median is the value in the center. The mode is the number that appears the most frequently in a data set.Fixed Ratio, fixed intervalFixed ratios are more suited to optimizing output amount, but fixed intervals, where the reward is not reliant on production quantity, can lead to superior output quality. The number of replies required for a reward fluctuates under a variable ratio reinforcement schedule.Variable Ratio, variable intervalVariable ratio schedules keep the desired behavior at high and consistent rates, and the habit is particularly resistant to extinction. Interval schedules entail rewarding a behavior after a time interval has elapsed. The time interval in a fixed interval schedule is always the same.Cognitive dissonanceA psychological conflict that emerges when ideas or assumptions are challenged by fresh information.Evolutionary psychologyThe study of behavior, thinking, and emotion as seen through the evolutionary biology perspective. Evolutionary psychologists believe that all human behaviors are influenced by physical and psychological predispositions which enabled our ancestors to survive and reproduce.Broca's areaOften referred to as the motor speech area. It is located in the inferior frontal gyrus, close to the motor cortex, and is used in speech production. This area controls breathing patterns and vocalizations required for normal speech.Wernicke's areaA part of the brain containing motor neurons involved in speech comprehension. The Wernicke region is located in the posterior portion of the left hemisphere's upper temporal convolutionName the 5 different types of validityFace validity, Content validity, Construct validity, Internal validity, External validity