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Type A attachment is also known as...

Insecure Avoidant

Type B attachment is also known as...

Secure attachment

Type C attachment is also known as...

Insecure Resistant

Which two researchers carried out a meta-analysis in 1988 to see the cross-cultural differences in attachment?

Van IJzendoorn and Kroonenberg (1988) carried out a meta-analysis of research carried out in various countries around the world, which all used Ainsworth's strange situation procedure (SSP)

How many studies did they analyze?


How many countries were there?


What countries were included in their sample?

Great Britain
United States
West Germany

How many children were tested using Ainsworth's procedure?


Which two countries had the lowest proportion of securely attached infants?

China (collectivist) 60%
Germany 57%

Which country had the highest?

Great Britain (75%)
and Sweden (75%)

How common was type B?

This was the most common form of attachment in all cultures.
Mean 65% across all studies.

Where was type C more common?

Israel, China and Japan

Japan had a high percentage of type C (27%), give one reason why this might be?

Mother's and infants are rarely apart in the first 12 months

What reason has been suggested for the relatively high rate of type A in Germany?

This may be due to the high value placed on independence and self reliance at an early age.

What did Rothenbaum et al argue?

He argued that the concept of attachment is rooted in Western perspective (ethnocentrism)
It is a western idea that reflects western cultures

what does research indicate about the attachment styles in different cultures?

Attachment styles as assessed by the strange situation procedure vary between cultures as well as within cultures (for example considerable differences were found between provinces in Germany and Israeli kibbutz compared to Israel city)

Avoidant was the most common form of insecure attachment in most countries except for ...............and ..................
Where is was...........................and China which had 25% type A and 25% type C


China had only one study analysed (25 mother baby pairs) in what way could Van Ijzendoorn and Kroonenberg made their sample more representitive?

A larger sample size and more studies from different parts of China would have been necessary in order for them to be able generalise their findings to the rest of the population

How many of the studies were carried out in the US?

Over half (18)
(1230 mother-infant pairs)

27 of the studies were carried out in what type of culture?

individualist cultures

How many were carried out in collectivist cultures?

(1 in China, 2 in Japan, 2 in Israel)

What does the sample distribution imply?

That the sample was not truly representative

What did Ijzendoorn and Kroonenberg conclude about the use of the strange situation procedure in different countries?

That the SSP may not be suitable as a method of assessing attachment styles in all cultures

Secure attachment was the most common form but how does this relate to Bowlby's attachment theory?

This universality of attachment supports Bowlby's theory that attachment is innate.

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