58 terms

Pharm - Chapter 2

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Additive Effects
When two drugs with similar actions are given together.
Adverse drug event
Any undesirable occurance r/t giving or failing to give a med
Adverse drug reaction
Any unexpected, unintended, undesired or excessive response to a med given at therapeutic dosages
Adverse effects
Any predictable undesirable effect that are a direct response to one or more drug.
Agonist
A drug that binds to and stimulates the activity of one or more receptors in the body
Allergic reaction
An immunologic hypersensitivity reaction resulting from the unusual sensitivity of a patient to a particular med. A type of adverse drug event
Antagonist
A drug that binds to and inhibits the activity of one or more receptors in the body. Also called inhibitors.
Antagonistic effects
Drug interactions in which the effect of a combination of two or more drugs is less than is less than the sum of the individual effects of the same drug given alone. It is usually caused by an antagonizing effect of one drug on another.
Bioavailability
A measure of the extent of drug absorption for a given drug and route. (first pass effect reduces this)
Biotransformation
One or more biochemical reactions involving a parent drug. Occurs mainly in the liver and produces a metabolite that is either inactive or active. Also known as metabolism
Blood Brain Barrier
The barrier system that restricts the passage of various chemicals and microscopic entities (bacteria, viruses) between the bloodstream and the CNS
Chemical name
The name that describes the chemcial composition and molecular structure of a drug. PROPIONIC ACID
Contraindication
Any condition, espeically one r/t a disease state or other pt. characteristic, including current or recent drug therapy that renders a particular form of treatment improper or undesirable.
Cytochrome
The general name for a large class of enzymes that play a big role in metabolism.
Dependence
A state in which there is a compulsive or chronic need, as in for a drug.
Dissolution
The process by which solid forms of drugs disinegrate in the GI tract and become soluble before being absorbed into the circulation.
Drug
Any chemical that affects the pysiological processes of a living organism.
Drug actions
The cellular processes involved in the interaction between a drug and body cells.
Drug effects
The pysiologic reactions of the body to a drug. The terms onset, peak and duration are used to describe drug effects
Drug induced teratogenesis
The development of congenital anomalies or defects in the developing fetus caused by toxic effects of drugs
Drug interactions
Alteration in the pharmacologic activity of a drug caused by the presence of one or more additional drugs.
Duration of action
The length of time the concentration of a drug in the blood or tissues is sufficient to elicit a response.
Enzymes
Protein molecules that catalyze one or more of a variety of biochemical reactions, including those r/t the body's own physiologic processes as well as those r/t drug metabolism.
First pass effect
The initial metabolism in the liver of a drug absorbed from the GI tract before the drug reaches systemic circulation through the bloodstream.
Generic name
Ibuprofen
Half life
The time required for half of a medication to be eliminated by the body, or the time it takes for the blood level of a drug to be reduced by 50%
Idiosyncratic reaction
An abnormal and unexpected response to a medication, other than an allergic reaction, that is peculiar to an individual patient.
Incompatibility
The characteristic that causes two parenteral drugs or solutions to undergo a reaction when mixed or given together that results in the chemical deterioration in at least one of the drugs.
Medication error
Any preventable adverse drug event involving inappropriate medication used by a patient or healthcare provider; it may or may not cause harm.
Metabolites
A chemical form of a drug that is the product of one or more biochemical (metabolic) reactions involving the parent drug.
Onset of action
The time required for a drug to elicit a therapeutic response after dosing.
Parent drug
The chemical form of a drug that is given before it is metabolized
Peak effect
The time required for a drug to reach its maximum therapeutic response in the body.
Peak level
The maxium concentration of a drug in the body after it is given, usually measured with a blood sample.
Pharmaceutics
The science of preparing and dispensing drugs including dosage form design.
Pharmacodynamics
What the drug does to the body
Pharmacogenetics
The study of the influence of genetic factors on drug response.
Pharmacognosy
The study of drugs that are obtained from natural plant and animal sources.
Pharmacokinetics
What the body does to the drug. This includes Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism & Excretion.
Pharmacotherapeutics
Focuses on the clinical use of drugs to prevent and treat diseases.
Prodrug
An inactive drug dosage form that is converted to an active metabolite by various biochemical reactions once it is inside the body.
Steady state
The physiologic state in which the amount of drug removed via elimination is equal to the amount of drug absorbed with each dose.
Substrates
Substances (drugs or natural biochemicals in the body) on which an enzyme acts.
Synergistic effects
Drug interactions in which the effect of a combination of two or more drugs with similiar actions is greater than the sum of the individual effects of the same drugs given alone.
Therapeutic drug monitoring
The process of measuring peak and trough levels to gauge the levels of a patients drug exposure and allow adjustment of dosages with the goal of maximizing therapeutic effects and minimizing toxicity.
Therapeutic effect
The desired or intended effect of a med.
Therapeutic index
The ratio between the toxic and therapeutic concentrations of a drug.
Tolerance
Reduced response to a drug after prolonged use.
Toxic
The quality of being posionous
Toxicity
The condition of producing adverse bodily effects due to posionous qualities
Trade name
Motrin
Trough level
The lowest concentration of a drug reached in the body after it falls from its peak level. Usually measured with a blood sample.
What can affect absorption?
Foods or fluids given with the drug. Dosage. Status of the absorptive surface. Rate of blood flow to the small intestine. Acidity of the stomach. GI motility. GI bleeding
Distribution
The transport of a drug into the body by the bloodstream to its site of action.
What can affect distribution?
Protein bound medications. Water soluble vs fat soluble. Blood brain barrier. Areas of rapid distribution (heart, liver, kidneys, brain). Areas of slow distribution (Muscle, skin, fat)
What can slow metabolism?
cardiovascular dysfunction, renal insufficiency, starvation, obstructive jaundice, slow acetylator, erythomycin or ketoconazole drug therapy
Primary organs for excretion
Kidneys and then also the bowel and the liver.
Lab values:
Potassium
Creatinine
WBC
K+ 3.5-5.0
BUN
Creatinine 0.6-1.3
WBC 5,000-10,000
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