29 terms

Chapter 18 Vocab

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taxonomy
discipline of classifying organisms and giving each of the organisms a universally accepted name
binomial nomenclature
a two-word naming system developed by Carolus Linneaus classifying organisms into a seven level hierarchical system
taxon
organisms are classified into seven levels of organization
kingdom
largest taxon, consisting of closely related phyla
phylum
a taxon of closely related classes
class
a taxon of closely related orders
order
a taxon of closely related families
family
a taxon of closely related genera
genus
a taxon containing the first word of a two-part scientific name used to identify a group of similar species
species
the most exclusive taxon of organisms that can be breed successfully. The name is never capitalized but is italicized
phylogeny
evolutionary history of a species based on comparative relationships of structures and comparison of modern life
classification
grouping organisms together based on their evolutionary history
derived character
characteristic that appears in recent parts of a lineage, but not in its older members
cladogram
a diagram showing evolutionary relationships among a group of organisms
molecular clock
a model used to compare DNA to estimate the length of time two species have been evolving independently
domain
most inclusive (broader-larger than a kingdom) taxonomic category containing three groups: Eukarya, Bacteria, and Archaea
Eukarya
this domain contains the kingdoms: protists, fungi, plants, and animals
Archaea
this domain corresponds to the kingdom Archaebacteria
Bacteria
this domain corresponds to the kingdom Eubacteria
division
taxonomic grouping of similar classes in the plant kingdom. Term used instead of phyla
Plantae
eukaryotic kingdom of multicellular autotrophs containing cellulose and chloroplast in their cell walls
Animalia
eukaryotic kingdom of multicellular heterotrophs containing no cell walls
Fungi
eukaryotic kingdom of heterotrophs containing cell walls made of chitin. Most multicellular, some unicellular
Protista
very broad eukaryotic kingdom of heterotrophs and autotrophs. cell walls can contain cellulose and some even contain chloroplasts. they can contain many cells, one cell, or possibly form colonies
Archaebacteria "ancient"
kingdom of univellular prokaryotes lacking peptidoglycan in their cell walls. No "pep" in their step (old).
Eubacteria "true"
prokaryotic kingdom of unicellular organisms containing peptidoglycan in their cell walls. Tru-dat
chitin
complex carbohydrate found in cell walls
cellulose
tough, flexible fibers giving plants their strength and rigidity (major component of wood and paper)
peptidoglycan
substance found only in cell walls of bacteria from domain Bacteria