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Terms in this set (62)
Diffusion of responsibility
if a person is alone, they accept responsibility. If they are with a group of people each assumes the other will do their job for them, so they believe there is no need for responsibility.
Explains how people interpret their environment through the use of cognitive processes.
Cultural and Biological
Looking at cultural norms, values rules and behaviour and how they interact with genetics.
Describes how behaviour is influenced by the context of a persons situation
The scientific study how thoughts, feelings and behaviours are influenced by others.
Why does social loafing occur?
To feel less accountable for wrong actions and because they feel their efforts aren't as important.
Giving assistance, aid or charity to others.
The reducing of individual responsibility. Crowds give you the opportunity to hide and also share the blame if something goes wrong. Example of anonymity in people is when they wear uniforms, sunglasses, war-paint, etc
Rope experiment (Myers 2004)
When a group of men were asked to pull a rope they did not pull as hard or effectively as they did when they were alone.
Realistic conflict theory
Intergroup hostility arises because of competition between group of scarce but valued resources.
Factors reducing social loafing
- Making individuals contribution compulsory
-Emphasising value of individual contributions
-Keeping group size an appropriate level
Where deindividuation occurs and they do not feel as responsible for their actions.
Latane, Wiliams & Harkins (1979)
Social loafing was measured by individuals being asked to clap and cheer as loud as they could. First they had to do it alone and then they had to do it with others around. Results showed that individuals clapped and cheered louder when they thought they were alone.
Encourages people to behave in a pro-social manner to people who have helped them in the past or will in the future.
Trick or treat experiment (Diener)
To see if anonymity affected children's behaviour in groups. This experiment tested if diendividuisation would cause a child to steal or not. Children were more likely to steal in groups then if they were anonymous.
Theory of relative deprivation
Feelings of discontent arises from the belief that others are better off then you and your group. (Think pretty and pink, when she talks about the 'richies')
Pretence, Dunn & Rogers- Self awareness
The concern about your impression. This can be reduced by anonymity.
Anonymous lab coat study Zimbado (1970)
If you are anonymous you are more likely to be agressive. Participants who were anonymous shocked more then identable participants. This contributed to the explanation that anonymity causes agressive behaviour.
The impact of the standards established by the individuals group behaviour.
Less social loafing occurs when...
- The task is considered interesting
- All members are highly motivated
- Everybody's contributions are essential for success
- Performance is monitored
- Strong identity in the group
A large group increases anonymity and diffused responsibility. A morally questionable act may seem less personally wrong.
Krishan and Carment
To see the effect of pro-social behaviour being returned. 60 percent of the people who had been helped by the actor helped in return while none of the participants who were not helped helped in return.
Factors of De-individualisation Zimbado (1970)
- Increased arousal
- Reduced responsibility
- Sensory overload
- Altered consciousness (drug/ alcohol)
Group or individual creativity technique where efforts are made to find a conclusion of an specific problem by gathering a list of ideas spontaneously contributed by its members. It is believed that groups generate more ideas then individuals working separately.
The rivalry of two or more parties over something. Competitions within groups reduces need for group cohesion, hinders efforts to achieve group goal and competition in groups increases group solidarity.
Standards set by a group where group members follow.
The costume experiment
Determined the affect of wearing masks on individuals ability to shock someone. When people are anonymous wearing a costume they are more likely to harm (shock) someone. People wearing nurses outfits shocked less then people who were fully covered.
Rewards and punishments administrated by members of a group to ensure that individuals follow group norms.
Actual or implied pressure by friends or others around you to behave according to group norms
Factors for deindividuation in a group
2) Diffused responsibility
3) Group size
Behaviour enacted to benefit everybody involved in a particular situation. Including person engaging in the behaviour.
The tendency of an individual to reduce their effect on a group. A sense of anonymity can lead up to individuals reducing their affect.
Darkened room arousal (Gergen 1973)
Researches discovered deindividuation caused affectionate behaviour. These results imply that deindividuation may be included in intimate relationship development.
Any collection of two or more people who interact with and influence one another and who share a common purpose.
Bringing ones behaviour into agreement with social norms or with the behaviours of others in a group.
Factors due to the environment/ situation around the person that influences their behaviour.
The loss of identity and inhibition causing a person to loose responsibility of their own values and actions causing them to ignore possible consequences. E.g throwing food in the food court.
Social Identity Theory (Tajfel 1979)
Group members in an 'in-group' will seek to find negative aspects of an 'out-group' thus, enhancing their self image.
Factors such as a persons traits influencing their behaviour
A persons sense of who they are based on their group membership. Groups gives us a sense of belonging in the social world.
The effect of group size on behaviour
If you are in a group with just one other person you would be less likely to conform then if there was a group of more people involved.
Types of social theories
- Behaviourist Approach
- Cognition Theories
- Cultural and biological
The more people that are present in an emergency the less likely each person would try and help.
Michael Diehl and Wolfgang Stroebe
It is believed that groups generate more ideas then individuals working seperately
People are more inclined to take the situation into account when explaining their own behaviour and underemphasize their own personalities.
A mental shortcut, where the first conclusion in a situation comes to mind.
Self serving bias
People tend to attribute their success to dispositional factors (personality) and attribute their failures to situational factors. E.g "I did well on the test because i am smart." or "I did poor on the test because i didn't have enough sleep the night before"
Fundamental Attribution Error
We overestimate the power of the person and underestimate the power of the situation. E.g a person trips "they are clumsy" not "there was a crack on the sidewalk"
When there is harmony in decision- making
William McDougall (1908)
Beliefs, attitudes and thoughts that were institutionalised become a part of the individuals who reflected those beliefs.
Floyd Allport (1924)
Argued that social behaviour is derived from the behaviour and actions of others.
Explains how people infer the causes behind the behaviours of others and themselves.
When we are describing our own behaviour we tend to make external attributions, such as situational or environmental ( an external factor causing a certain behaviour to occur)
Methods to reduce cognitive dissonance
1) Focus on more supportive beliefs that outweigh the dissonant beliefs or behaviour.
2) Reduce the importance of conflicting belief
3) Change the conflicting belief so it's consistent with others beliefs and behaviours.
The feeling of discomfort that results from holding two conflict beliefs. When there is a discrepancy between beliefs and bahaviours something must change in order to eliminate or reduce the dissonance. E.g purchasing an item at the shop then realising you made the wrong decision and wishing you purchased the other item.
Internal (personal) attributions
When we explain the behaviour of others we look for enduring internal attributions such as personality traits. E.g we attribute the behaviour of a person to their naivety or jealousy.
Social behaviours is described/ explained by items of schedules of reinforcement. They are unobservable variables like feelings, beliefs and thoughts to explain behaviour.
Le Bon 1995
individuals behaviour changes in the precense of large crowds: 'decends several rungs of the ladder of civilisation'
How is social loafing influenced by culture?
by cultural norms- individualistic cultures (US, AUS) see more social loafing instances then collective cultures.
How is social loafing influenced by gender?
Women seem to loaf less then men- Karau and Williams (1993)
Task dependent groups
working together successful to complete a task
Socially dependent groups
Families, social staff, research teams, flight crews. Groups that are together long term and rely on eachother for information.
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