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The Age of Reason
Thomas Paine's anti-Church doctrine that accused churches of seeking power and wealth to enslave men
18th century religious doctrine that emphasized reasoned moral behavior and the scientific pursuit of knowledge
believe in a unitary deity, reject the divinity of Christ, and emphasize the goodness of mankind
Second Great Awakening
religious revival characterized by emotional mass and widespread conversion in the early 19th century
name for western NY, a region swept up in the religious intensity of the Second Great Awakening
religious followers of Joseph Smith who founded a communal religious order in the 1830s
public lecture hall that hosted speakers on topics ranging from science to moral philosophy
American Temperance Society
founded in Boston in 1826 as part of a growing effort of 19th century reformers to limit alcohol consumption
Maine Law of 1851
prohibited the manufacture and sale of alcohol
Woman's Rights Convention at Seneca Falls
gathering of feminist activists at NY; Elizabeth Cady stated "all men and women are created equal" in her "Declaration of Sentiments"
communal society of around one thousand members, established in New Harmony, Indiana
transcendentalist commune founded by a group of intellectuals; emphasized simple living while pursuing the life of the mind
a radical utopian community established in the 19th century; advocated "free love" and birth control
emphasized simple, communal living and were all expected to practice celibacy
Hudson River school
American artistic movement that produced romantic images of local landscapes
variety shows performed by white actors in black-face
literary and intellectual movement that emphasized individualism and self-reliance
"The American Scholar"
Ralph Waldo Emerson's address at Harvard College; declared an intellectual independence from Europe, urging American scholars to develop their own traditions
most famous Methodist travelling frontier preacher; traveled around the country preaching to large groups.
Charles Grandison Finney
the greatest of the revival preachers during the Second Great Awaking who led massive revivals in NY; devised the "anxious bench"
said to have been given golden plates from an angel; founder of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints (Mormons)
leader of the Mormons after the assassination of Smith; decided to move the group west to Utah
U.S. educator who introduced reforms that significantly altered the system of public education
New England teacher and author who advocated for the improved treatment of the mentally ill
Neal S. Dow
the mayor of Portland, Maine who sponsored a law that helped earn his nickname "Father of Prohibition"
Quaker women's rights advocate who also strongly supported abolition of slavery; helped organize Seneca Falls Convention
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
women's rights advocate who organized the seneca falls convention
Susan B. Anthony
leader of woman suffrage movement; helped to define the movement's goals and beliefs
U.S. feminist who founded the American Women Suffrage Association
newspaper publisher; devised looser-fitting clothes known as "bloomers"
British utopian socialist who believed that humans would show their true natural goodness if they lived in a cooperative enviroment
John J. Audubon
lovers of American bird lore owe much to this French-descended American; published the magnificently illustrated Birds of America
Stephen C. Foster
white Pennsylvanian of the mid-1800s whose songs captured the plaintive spirit of the slaves
James Fenimore Cooper
United States novelist noted for his stories of indians and the frontier life
Ralph Waldo Emerson
United States writer and leading exponent of transcendentalism
Henry David Thoreau
American transcendentalist who was against slavery;wrote down his beliefs in his works
United States poet who celebrated the greatness of America; famous for his beliefs on nature
Henry Wadsworth Longfellow
United States poet remembered for his long narrative poems
Louisa May Alcott
American writer and reformer best known for her largely autobiographical novel Little Women
United States poet noted for her mystical and unrhymed poems
United States writer of novels and short stories mostly on moral themes; wrote the Scarlet Letter
American writer whose experiences at sea provided the factual basis of Moby-Dick
An historian who wrote about the struggle between France and Britain for North America