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A fluid loss of greater than ________ percent of body weight can result in organ failure, coma, and death.


The calcium in calcium fortified orange juice is well absorbed.


Strict guidelines are in place to prevent heat related deaths in high school and collegiate athletes.


Carotenosis is a serious side effect of consuming too much beta-carotene that can be fatal if untreated.


Skin cancer is the most common form of cancer in the United States.


Which of the following techniques can assess the risk of fracture?

dual energy x-ray absorptiometry

The process called bone ________ determines the shape of bones.


Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is the only method to measure the health of bone tissue.


Blood is the only fluid tissue in the human body.


Major minerals are those that the body needs more than ________ mg of per day.


At what stage in the development of cancer do the cancerous cells grow out of control and invade surrounding tissues?


The fluid that is found in between cells is called ________ fluid.


On average, which of the following individuals would have the highest percentage of body water?

35-year-old lean man

The disease ________ results from a vitamin D deficiency during adulthood.


A goiter can result from ________

too much or too little iodine in the diet.

What is the primary role of the B-vitamins?

act as coenzymes

Insufficient intake of iron will FIRST affect the body's ________ levels.


Hormone replacement therapy has been proven to be a safe and effective treatment for heart disease.


Which of the following were once referred to as accessory factors?

vitamins and minerals

Sodium is an essential nutrient necessary for human health.


Cindy J. is 63 years old and at risk for osteoporosis. Which of the following dietary supplements would be the MOST helpful to minimize bone loss?

calcium and vitamin D

A genetic disorder that results in an excess of iron absorption and storage is ________.


The type of mental impairment caused by insufficient iodine during fetal development is known as ________.


A deficiency of ________ can result in erythrocyte hemolysis, leading to anemia.

Vitamin E

Which of the following increases the RDA for vitamin C?

smoking cigarettes

A substance that is capable of dissolving a variety of compounds is known as a/n ________.


Which of the following is FALSE about trabecular bone?

comprises approximately 80% of the skeleton

All of the following factors can inhibit the synthesis of vitamin D EXCEPT

fair skin

As adults age, bone density declines.


A vitamin A deficiency can cause night ________, which results in the inability to adjust to dim light and the failure to regain sight quickly after a bright flash of light.


Which mineral can function as an antioxidant?


Which of the following is NOT a function of vitamin E?

improving the absorption of vitamin C if dietary intake is low

Cindy J. is 63 years old and at risk for osteoporosis. Which of the following dietary supplements would be the MOST helpful to minimize bone loss?

calcium and vitamin D

Cooking meat at high temperatures can result in the formation of ________

heterocyclic amines

Research shows that smokers benefit from daily supplements of beta carotene.


The most serious type of heat illness is heat ________.


One of the reasons that the elderly are at high risk of dehydration is that their thirst mechanism is less effective than younger people.


Which of the following is a diuretic?


Which of the following individuals is at risk for hyperkalemia?

an individual with kidney disease

Iron absorption is highest when your iron stores and your iron intake are both ________.


Which mineral's absorption is enhanced greatly by vitamin C?


Chromium assists in ________ uptake.


Vitamin B12 is essential for the proper functioning of ________ cells.


Selenium toxicity occurs from an overconsumption of foods rich in this mineral.


Skin cancer is the most common form of cancer in the United States.


Non-heme iron is found in both animal- and plant-based foods.


Phylloquinone and menaquinone are better known as ________


In the body, ________ is the primary active form of vitamin D


Trabecular bone has a faster turnover rate than cortical bone.


Extreme dehydration, vomiting, and diarrhea can result in hypokalemia.


Most minerals are absorbed better from animal food sources than from supplements.


The binder found in high fiber foods that inhibits the absorption of iron and zinc is ________.

oxalic acid

Which of the following hormones requires selenium for its synthesis?


Which of the following are rich sources of vitamin C?

green and red peppers

One of the side effects of using bisphosphonates is ________

abdominal pain.

Two-thirds of body fluids consist of ________ fluid.


While the rod cells of the retina allow us to see black and white images, the ________ cells are responsible for letting us see in different colors.


The point at which our bones are the densest is ________ bone density.


The meat factor is

a special quality found in meat, poultry, and fish that enhances iron absorption.

Folate deficiency during pregnancy is associated with

neural tube defects.

What is the primary role of the B-vitamins?

act as coenzymes

Vitamin C impairs the absorption of iron.


Carrots, spinach, and sweet potatoes contain a large amount of preformed vitamin A.


People who consume large amounts of raw eggs are susceptible to ________ deficiency.


One of the symptoms of heat exhaustion is cessation of body sweating.


Of the following ethnic groups, which has the highest risk of developing hypertension?

African American

The movement of water through a semipermeable membrane toward solutes is called ________


The majority of people who develop cancer will die from the disease.


Hyperventilation, core body temperature above 105°F, hot and dry skin, and rapid pulse are all symptoms of what type of heat illness?

heat stroke

Death rates due to osteoporosis are more common in women that in men.


As compared to light-skinned individuals, the synthesis of vitamin D is limited in individuals with darker skin.


Fruits and vegetables are rich sources of potassium.


At what age does bone resorption generally begin to occur more rapidly than bone formation?


The "command center" of fluid intake is located in the ________


Heat cramps are caused by fluid and electrolyte imbalances.


Term used to describe the two-step process by which bone tissue is recycled is ________.


Deficiencies of fat-soluble vitamins are sometimes seen in people who ________

have a fat malabsorption disorder.

Zinc is a ________ mineral that acts as a cofactor for almost a hundred different enzymens.


The major intracellular positively charged electrolyte is ________.


The only way to obtain adequate calcium and vitamin D is to use supplements.


Which of the following is NOT associated with the female athlete triad?


Free radicals

are formed by exposure to air pollution and tobacco smoke.

Taking vitamin E supplements along with ________ can cause uncontrollable bleeding.


Approximately half of all cancers are strongly hereditary.


Adequate folate consumption is the most critical during the last trimester of pregnancy.


Most Americans exceed the dietary recommendations for sodium.


A deficiency of ________ has been associated with convulsions and dermatitis in infants.

vitamin B6

Pellagra was first seen in populations where the dietary staple was ________


Which statement regarding thiamin is FALSE?

It is often toxic when consumed in excess.

Which of the following groups are the MOST vulnerable to dehydration?

infants and the elderly

Carotenosis is a serious side effect of consuming too much beta-carotene that can be fatal if untreated.


Mineral supplements are made in the laboratory from plant sources.


Calcitonin is a hormone secreted by the ________ gland.


A T-score between +1 and -1 on a DXA signifies ________

normal bone density.

The majority of the calcium formed in our bodies is found in the blood and soft tissues.


The two electrolytes that enable nerves to respond to stimuli are sodium and ________.


Which of the following is NOT a mechanism to maintain the body's internal temperature?

Warmed fluids from the body's surface return to the body's core, thus heating the body.

Individuals suffering from a zinc deficiency should include more whole and enriched grains in their diets.


Which of the following is the BEST source of thiamin?

whole and enriched cereals and grains

What is transamination?

a key process in the creation of nonessential amino acids

Vitamin K deficiencies are rare because

intestinal bacteria produce vitamin K.

Fat-soluble vitamins should be consumed more frequently than water-soluble vitamins.


Research has shown that long-term magnesium deficiency can lead to the development of osteoporosis.


Which of the following nutrients requires the most frequent consumption to assure adequate body stores?

vitamin c

In an atom, the nucleus has a positive charge, and the electrons orbiting around the nucleus have a ________ charge.


Eating whole foods that are high in antioxidants, such as fruits, vegetables, and whole grains, is consistently shown to be associated with a decreased risk of cancer.


In which phase of a woman's life cycle is bone loss the greatest?


Vitamin C is not stored in the body and must be consumed frequently.


Clear to pale colored urine is a good indicator of good hydration status.


Which of the following is the most abundant mineral in our body?


When does bone growth and modeling start?

during fetal development

Consuming excessive amounts of calcium supplements can lead to the development of kidney stones.


In women, the risk of osteoporosis increases with menopause due to the loss of the hormone ________


Heat cramps that develop during vigorous physical activity in hot temperatures are due to ________

a fluid and electrolyte imbalance.

Researchers estimate that ________ of cancer deaths are related to overweight or obesity, poor nutrition, and physical activity.


The ________ is the region of the brain that regulates the sense of thirst.


Hot and humid environments increase the risk of heat illness because sweat does not evaporate and the body cannot cool itself.


A genetic disorder characterized by excessive iron absoprtion is ________.


Macronutrients are more efficiently absorbed by the body than micronutrients.


Antioxidants must be consumed in our diet because our bodies cannot make them.


The majority of our body's fluoride is stored in ________

the skeleton.

When blood calcium levels fall, which of the following does NOT occur?

PTH and vitamin D stimulate osteoblasts to break down bone.

Blood is the only fluid tissue in the human body.


Where does the body store selenium?

in amino acids in the body

Which of the following foods are the richest sources of vitamin E?

mayonnaise, vegetable oils, nuts, and seeds

A lack of dietary iodine during pregnancy is the primary cause of ________ worldwide.


Which of the following comprises the vitamin B6 "umbrella" of compounds?

pyridoxal, pyridoxine, and pyridoxamine

Cells responsible for the resorption of bone are ________.


Insensible water loss includes water loss ________

through respiration.

Diseases that cause the malabsorption of fat can result in a deficiency of ________

vitamin A.

All antioxidants are water soluble.


Since vitamins are found in a wide variety of foods, they are considered non-essential nutrients.


The hormone secreted by the thyroid gland when blood calcium levels are too high is ________.


All of the following are signs and symptoms of cancer EXCEPT

unexplained weight gain.

Eating too much sodium will result in hypernatremia in most healthy individuals.


The fluid portion of the blood is called ________.


At the present time there is no AI established for calcium.


A light-sensitive pigment found in the rod cells formed by retinal and opsin is ________.


The human body typically absorbs less than 20% of the iron consumed in the diet.


The agency that sets and monitors standards for city water systems is the ________

Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).

Which of the following explains why folate is critical to the health of a newly conceived embryo?

Folate is needed for proper cell division.

Marie is 55 years old and just had her first DXA assessment. The results indicated that she has a T-score of -1.5. What does her T-score indicate?

Compared to a 30-year-old healthy adult, she has low bone mass.

Which of the following organs is responsible for the synthesis of vitamin D?

all of these

Diets rich in ________ are associated with maintaining healthy blood pressure levels.


All of the following conditions are related to an electrolyte imbalance EXCEPT


The thirst mechanism is highly sensitive and responsive to changes in fluid balance, especially as we age.


The phytates and fiber found in whole grains and beans strongly inhibit ________ absorption.


Which of the following is a poor source of dietary magnesium?

refined grain products

Diets rich in vitamin B6, folate and vitamin B12 are associated with reduced blood levels of the amino acid homocysteine.


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