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40 terms

Middle East

Turkey, Egypt, Iran, and Israel
STUDY
PLAY
Islam, Christianity, Judaism
...
Scholarship during Middle Ages; music theorists
Arabic scholars found Ancient Greek music theory which also influenced European Music
Ottoman Empire (13th-20th Centuries)
Turkish dynasty that ruled over west asia, eastern europe, and northern africa
Istanbul, Constantinople, Byzantium
...
MUEZZIN
single male calling to prayer (starts it in the minaret)
MINARET
Tall thin towers: from here people (muezzin) indicates the prayer and brings everyone to prayer
KA'BA
Holiest shrine (mosque)
Mecca
Mecca is the holy city and the hajj is to mecca
MIHRAB
a niche in the wall that indicates where Mecca is
KORAN
Islam's holy book
Muhammad (570-632)
Muslim prophet spread religion of Islam
ADHAN
Islamic call to prayer
HAJJ
The pilgrimage from Medina to Mecca
UD
Fretless plucked pear shaped lute (the origin of other lutes)
Ud--pipa--biwa
BUZUQ
creates intermittent drones; lute with rounded body and nylon frets
MAKAM
Arabic Turkish mode/system of rules and expectations for composition and improv
IQA-AT
Islamic music and rhythmic modes
- about 6-8 standard modes
1) Non-music
2) Legitimate Music
3) Controversial Music
4) Illegitimate Music
...
HARAM
Prohibited, forbidden, sinful
SANTUR
Hammered zither from persian classical tradition; very important
hardwood (like piano)
DATSGAH
a particular scale/ mode of piece of work
GUSHEH
Each datsgah has certain gusheh to it (characteristics)
RADIF
All of the datsgah (scales, modes)
TAKHT ensemble
Arabic music ensemble w/ zithers,bowed and plucked lutes, drums, aerophones, and at times, non trad. instruments
KANUN
Plucked zither used in music traditions
-used in Takht ensembles
very complex
NEY
End-blown notch flute/ very common
TABLA (DARABUKKA)
Goblet drum with single head (unrelated to Indian drums)
SUFISM
Mystical branch of Islam
-person can become one with Allah
-Wool (robes: 2 sets black and white)
-Music and chants very important
DERVISH
"beggar" Monks who relay on the public to survive
-musicians as well and go to rituals to play
DHIKR
Sufi ritual where people chant "allah" to enter an ecstatic state
"remembrance"
Modulation (Maqam or Dastgah shift)
change in tone- go to new scale (mode)
UD--PIPA--BIWA
Middle east lute--China--Japan
UD--LUTE--GUITAR
Middle East--Europe--Americas/europe
KANUN--QIN--KOTO
Middle east plucked zither--China--Japanese
SANTUR--PIANO (?)
The hammered zither
Site 1: Islamic "Call to Prayer" - Turkey
Single vocalist (muezzin)
Melismatic
Site 2: Arabic Instrumental Modal Improvisation - Turkey
Improv with ud and buzuq
Middle Eastern "sounding"/ the Mummy
With guitar
Site 3: DASTGAH for SANTUR and Voice - Turkey
Higher pitched santur - free rhythm
Melancholy Melismas/ minor w/ ornamentation
Vocalist enters halfway through
Site 4: Islamic Song with TAKHT Instrumental Accompaniment
Background noise
Single male vocals: melismatic
Graceful (belly dance?)
Steady beat/pulse
Site 5: Sufi DHIKR Ceremony
Swirling (group of males chanting)
Allah refrain again and again
Unison until single male melisma