Lecture 25

What is orienting (vestibular sense)?
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Critical for balance, fluid filled chambers that cause hair cells to move and send information to the brain. Similar to hearing, but rather than sending information about sound, it sends information about orientation and acceleration.
We have three of these to pick up information about 3-D environments and rotations in 3 directions.
Smart Perceptual Devices. They pick up a higher-order parameter without picking up on a lower-order parameter. They pick up on acceleration without picking up on velocity. Our bodies do not perceive velocity, this allows us to fly in planes or drive without getting dizzy or sick. This gives us the sense of being stationary while in these transportation devices.
A fluid filled chamber with a calcium deposit and hair cell in it, connected to the semicircular canal. If you tilt your head, the calcium deposit will hit different hair cells to help tell your orientation. For other animals like lobsters, the stone is actually stuck at the end of the hairs rather than free-moving. There is a disorder where this gets stuck, causing dizziness and sickness.
In the somatosensory cortex, the size of projection area (spatial organization), corresponds to what?Corresponds to degree of sensitivity, lips and fingers are more sensitive and have more touch acuity.Much of motor control at the major joints, like the elbows and knees, actually occurs in _____ _____.Subcortical areas.Why do we attend physical therapy after strokes or broken bones?If you were to break part of your hand, your cortex area dedicated to it will shrink and remap to accommodate, which is why you have to attend physical therapy to "relearn" or "remap" motor skills with that part of your hand.What did the third thumb experiment show?An experiment that gave an individual an additional thumb actually caused a loss in mapping of other fingers to make room for the additional thumb's mapping. This remapping gets harder with age.What is kinesthesis?The perception of the body, relative to the body, using muscles and joints. Object properties are perceived via kinesthesis but putting objects in motion with muscular torque. Ex: Moving your wrist to gauge how much liquid is left in a cup.What is the medium for the somatosensory systems?The body itself.What is the invariant for length detection in kinesthesis?Time varying motions and time varying torques (forces) are coupled by moments of inertia, which is invariant. Inertia is analogous to texture gradient and eye height. It is invariant to length perception using kinesthesis.Muscle sense picks up on _____.Inerita.