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NES Elementary Education Subtest 1 (Part II)
Terms in this set (175)
Primary functions of government
1) maintain order
2) settle conflicts
3) protect the community
America's first national government was based on...
The Articles of Confederation
The legislative branch and vests power to legislate in the Congress of the United States.
The executive powers of the President and its branch of government enforces the laws of the land.
The judicial branch as the Supreme Court and such inferior courts as Congress sees necessary to establish.
The sharing of power among the national, state, and local governments.
Education for _____ in a constitutional democracy has been a long-standing goal of schools in the United States.
Powers reserved by national government:
1) Print Money
2) Regulate interstate + international trade
3) Make treaties (foreign policy)
4) Declare War
5) Provide army/navy
6) Establish post offices
7) Make laws necessary and proper to carry out these powers
Powers reserved by state governments
1) Issue licenses
2) Regulate intrastate businesses
3) Conduct elections
4) Establish local govt
5) Ratify amendments to the Consititution
6) Take measures for public health/safety
7) Exercise powers the Constitution doesn't delegate to national govt
Powers reserved by both national + state governments
1) Collect taxes
2) Build roads
3) Borrow money
4) Make/enforce laws
5) Charter banks/corporations
6) Spend money for general welfare
7) Take private property for public purposes with just compensation
Location of the European Union
When limited resources are used to satisfy one want/need, there are other wants/needs that remain unsatisfied.
Decisions by Business A affect decisions of other businesses and vice-versa
Factors of Production
Three Basic Economic Questions of all economic systems
What will we produce with our resources?
How will we produce these goods?
For whom will we produce these goods?
Answers to Three Basic Economic Questions are based on how they were addressed in the past.
Example: if your family grows wheat, you will be a wheat farmer, too.
Government provides all answers to the Three Basic Economic Questions. The state owns all property and controls all resources. Consumer needs receive little attention. Example: former Soviet Union
Three Basic Economic Questions are answered by individuals and privately owned corporations instead of the government.
Takes place in a free market governed by Supply & Demand, which determines the price of goods and services.
Both government and the marketplace answer the Three Basic Economic Questions.
Individuals and firms enjoy economic freedom, but are subject to government regulation.
Ex: US, Canada, Australia, Japan, Germany, the UK, Italy
Divided into: Paleolithic, Mesolithic, Neolithic, The Bronze Age, The Iron Age
1 million+ years ago in which several Homo species used crude rock tools
12,000 - 7,000 years ago
7000 - 5500 years ago
The Bronze Age
5500 - 3200 years ago
The Iron Age
3200 years ago
The collapse of Rome in _____
From about 500 - 1000 CE, Western Europe was politically divided, rural, and largely cut off from advanced civilizations in the Middle East, China, and India. This period in Europe has often been called the _____ _____
China broke apart when the _____ dynasty collapsed in 220 CE and remained divided for almost 400 years.
China was not restored to its earlier glory until the emergence of the _____ Dynasty in 618 CE.
The _____ were the earliest American civilization that emerged in the tropical forests along the Gulf Coast of Mexico from about 1500 BCE to 400 BCE.
a geographic region made up of Mexico and Central America.
The _____ are believed to have originated from West Africa, in present day Cameroon and Nigeria.
The dawn of human society
Early civilizations and emergence of pastoral peoples (4000-1000 BCE)
Classical traditions, major religions, and giant empires (1000 BCE-300 CE)
Expanding zones of exchange and encounter (300-1000 CE)
Intensified hemispheric interactions (1000-1500 CE)
First global age (1450-1770 CE)
(Era 6) 1487
Portuguese explorer Bartholomeu Diaz rounded the Cape of Good Hope.
(Era 6) 1492
Christopher Columbus discovers the New World, bringing the Americas into a global trading/cultural system.
(Era 6) 1497
John Cabot (Giovanni Caboto), an Italian explorer, navigated the coast of Newfoundland.
(Era 6) 1498
Portuguese explorer Vasco da Gama founded colonies in India.
(Era 6) 1499
Amerigo Vespucci, an Italian maritime explorer, discovered the mouth of the Amazon River. Continent's namesake.
(Era 6) 1500
Portuguese explorer Pedro Cabral became the first European to enter Brazil.
(Era 6) 1512
Juan Ponce de Leon, a Spanish explorer and governor of Hispaniola; discovered Florida.
(Era 6) 1519
Spanish conquistador, Hernan Cortes begins his conquest of South America. Cortes also crushes the Aztec Empire and its capital, Tenochtitlán.
(Era 6) 1519-22
The Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan led the first expedition to circumnavigate the globe.
(Era 6) 1535
French navigator Jacques Cartier discovers the St. Lawrence River.
Colonization and settlement (1585-1763)
Samuel de Champlain
French explorer in Nova Scotia who established a settlement at modern Quebec (1567-1635)
English navigator who discovered the Hudson River
First governing document of Plymouth Colony. Written by Separatists or "Saints", fleeing religious persecution by King James of Great Britain. They traveled aboard the Mayflower in 1620.
English clergyman and colonist who was expelled from Massachusetts for criticizing Puritanism
Englishman and Quaker who founded the colony of Pennsylvania
First permanent English settlement in the Americas in 1607
Historical term indicating trade among three ports or regions. Evolves when exported commodities are not required in the region of its major imports. Rectifies trade imbalances between regions.
Ex: Slaves to Americas, Cotton to England, Textiles to Africa, repeat cycle
James Edward Oglethorpe
British general and founder of the colony of Georgia. Also a social reformer who had hoped to resettle Britain's poor in the New World.
Revolution and the New Nation (1754-1820s)
Expansion and reform (1801-1861)
Civil War and Reconstruction (1850-1877)
The Dred Scott Case
Dred Scott v. Sandford (1857), decision by the U.S. Supreme Court held that Blacks could not be American citizens and therefore had no standing to sue in federal court.
With the election of Abraham Lincoln in _____, seven southern states seceded from the Union.
The development of the industrial United States (1870-1900)
The emergence of modern America (1890-1930)
The turn of the century witnessed the emergence of a national reform movement known as _____. It included advocates of women's suffrage, municipal reform, temperance, immigration reform, and a host of other social reforms.
The Great Depression and World War II (1929-1945)
The United States entered World War II after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor in _____, _____
Postwar United States (1945-early 1970s)
When North Korea forces attacked South Korea in _____, the United States intervened.
Contemporary United States (1968-the Present)
The age of pyramid building began with King _____ around _____ BCE.
Largest city of ancient Indus Valley Civilization built around 2600 BCE
China's earliest civilizations started along the _____ _____ River in north central China.
Invention of the wheel and plough in Mesopotamia; invention of the sail in Egypt
Invention of writing in Mesopotamia
Founding of the first cities in Sumeria: origin of modern social and administrative structures.
Modern alphabet invented
Founding of Rome
Invention of ironworking
Birth of Confucius
Birth of Buddha
Founding of the Roman Empire
Birth of Jesus Christ. The exact date is disputed.
First use of modern paper
Unification of China under the Western Qin Dynasty
Roman Emperor Constantine converts to Christianity
Fall of the Roman Empire. The creation of modern Europe begins.
Birth of Muhammad
Printing invented in China
Charlemagne crowned Emperor of the new Western Empire. Europe begins to reintegrate.
Genghis Khan begins his conquest of Asia. Impacts Asian development and the movement of peoples.
First book printed with moveable type: Johannes Gutenberg's revolution in printing technology makes mass-market reading possible.
Invention of the watch: introduces the concept of regular timekeeping.
Martin Luther launches the Reformation. It is the start of Protestant Christianity and the idea of religious individualism.
Isaac Newton publishes Principia Mathematica, the foundation of modern physics.
American Declaration of Independence determines the political evolution of the New World and the rise of American power.
Rocket steam locomotive built, marking the start of the railway age of cheap, fast land transport.
Benz develops first gasoline-driven car
New Zealand introduces unrestricted women's suffrage
Einstein's theory of relativity published
End of the First World War. The Habsburg and Ottoman empires collapse; maps of Europe and the Middle East are redrawn.
WWII ends the age of imperialism
End of Second World War; the first nuclear bomb is detonated
Communist China founded
Invention of the silicon chip
Collapse of Communist regimes in Europe
Waged by the Holy Roman Empire to restore Christian control of the Holy Land (1095-1291)
The Hundred Years' War
Between the royal houses of France & England for the right to the French throne (1337-1453)
Fall of Constantinople (Byzantine Empire)
Defeated by the Ottoman Empire in 1453
The Conquest of Peru
Military conquest of the Inca Empire by Spanish conquistadors (1532-1544)
Thirty Years' War
Resulted from power struggles between the Kings of France and the House of Habsburg (the Holy Roman Empire) (1618-1648)
The French Revolutionary Wars
A series of conflicts fought between the French Revolutionary government and European states hostile to the Revolution (1792-1802)
War of 1812
During the Napoleonic Wars, Great Britain sought to restrict French supplies by blocking American trade ships. British government in Canada was actively supporting Native American uprisings in the US.
North Korean invasion on South Korea led to UN & US intervention (1950)
War between North Vietnam (Communists) and South Vietnam supported by US (1956-1975)
The discipline of geography is divided into two major branches
physical geography, human (cultural) geography
_____ _____ study the landscapes, surface processes, and climate of Earth, much as earth scientists do. They are interested in the dynamics of the four spheres of our planet (atmosphere, hydrosphere, biosphere, and lithosphere).
the mass of air surrounding the Earth
Earth's watery layer
Regions of Earth's surface where living organisms exist
the solid part of the earth consisting of the crust and outer mantle
Concepts of culture
the adoption of the behavior patterns of the surrounding culture
the spread of social institutions (and myths and skills) from one society to another
The development/use of tools affects the ability to control and adapt the natural environment.
the application of soil and plant sciences to land management and crop production
Emigration due to costs and benefits attracting immigration.
Freedom of religion
Freedom of speech
Right to assemble
Right to petition the government
Right to bear arms
Freedom from quartering soldiers
Freedom from unreasonable searches & seizures; warrants issued upon probable cause
Criminal indictments must be by grand jury; freedom from testifying against oneself; right to face accusers; right to due process; right to legal counsel
Right to speedy trial, impartial jury, to be informed of the charges upon the accused is held
Right to jury trial in civil cases
Freedom from excessive bail/fines; freedom from cruel or unusual punishment
Govt where supreme power is held by king/queen/emperor who reigns over a territory; sometimes hereditary right
Govt controlled by small elite group
Govt with single ruler with absolute power
Govt that seeks to subordinate the state by controlling its attitudes, values, beliefs, and political/economic matters
Imposed on American colonies to fund British troops stationed in N. America after the Seven Years' War (1765)
Sons of Liberty
Organization of dissidents that protected rights of colonists from British oppression
First Continental Congress
Convention of delegates from the 12 colonies in response to Britain's Intolerable Acts (1774)
The first military engagements of the American Revolution.
The Battles of Lexington & Concord (1775)
Pamphlet written by Thomas Paine that inspired American colonists to declare independence from Great Britain.
"Common Sense" (1775-76)
The stripes on the US Flag represent the ______ and the stars represent the ______.
13 original colonies, 50 states
At the Battle of _____ in 1777, the Continental Army captured two major British armies, influencing France to ally with the revolutionaries.
The last major battle of the American Revolution.
The Siege of Yorktown (1781)
Negotiations of Britain's surrender after the American Revolution.
The Treaty of Paris (1782)
An uprising in Massachusetts caused by the economic depression post American Revolution.
Shay's Rebellion (1786-87)
An agreement among the 13 founding colonies of the US to have strong state govt and a weak federal govt
Articles of Confederation
The supreme law of the US
US Constitution (1789)
The first 10 amendments which protect US citizen rights.
The Bill of Rights
Bills deporting immigrants deemed dangerous to the welfare of US (1798)
Bills fining/imprisoning anyone opposing federalist laws
The purchase of the French territories of Louisiana
The Louisiana Purchase (1803)
The Monroe Doctrine
Any European nations attempting to colonize/interfere with lands in the Americas would be seen as aggression and lead to US intervention.
The Erie Canal
Navigable water route from NYC & Atlantic to the Great Lakes (1825)
Slave uprising in American South in 1831.
Nat Turner Rebellion
Trail of Tears
The ethnic cleansing and forced relocation of Native American nations from southeastern US. (1830)
Violent political confrontations involving anti-slavery & pro-slavery from 1854 - 1861
Fugitive Slave Act
Returned escaped slaves from another state/territory (1850)
"_____" written by _____, published in ____, was an anti-slavery novel which laid the groundwork for the Civil War.
"Uncle Tom's Cabin"
Harriet Beecher Stowe
Abolitionist led an unsuccessful raid on federal armory at Harpers Ferry to violently end slavery (1859)
The _____ _____ declared the freedom of slaves in the US in ____.
Emancipation Proclamation, 1863
American Businessman & Inventor (phonograph, motion picture camera, lightbulb)
Conflict resulting in the US intervention of the Cuban War of independence and attacks on Spain's Pacific possessions.
Spanish-American War (1898)
R&D project that produced the first atomic bombs by US in WWII
The Manhattan Project (1942-46)
An international relations policy to provide Greece & Turkey with economic & military aid to prevent them from joining the Soviet sphere.
Truman Doctrine (1947)
American initiative to assist the rebuilding of Europe after WWII
The Marshall Plan (1948-1952)
Anticommunist politician convinced there were Soviet spies living in the US.
Legislation that outlawed discrimination in US.
Civil Rights Act of 1964
First successful civilization
India's ancient civilization
Indus Valley Civilization (2500 - 1500 BC)
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
NES Elementary Education Subtest 1
NES - Geography & Social Studies
NES Elementary Education Subtest 1 (Part I)
NES Subtest 1
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