rad bio final review from outline

What must be maintained to ensure proper cell function?
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Normal humans have ____ different chromosomes in each somatic cell46What are segments of DNA?genesWhat are responsible for growth and development of the cell?genesWhat are compounds that do not contain carbon?inorganic compoundsWhat do acids do?they attack and dissolve metalWhat is the primary inorganic substance of the human body?waterWhat comprises approximately 80-85% of the bodys weight?waterWhat does catabolism mean?breaking downWhat does the nucleus contain?DNA and proteinsWhat is the multiplication process where one cell divides into 2 or more cells?cell divisionWhat occurs when a parent cell divides to form 2 daughter cells that are identical to the parent cell?mitosisHow many total chromosomes/pairs do humans have?46 chromosomes, 23 pairsWhat are the 4 phases of cell division?M (Mitosis phase) G1 (pre-DNA synthesis phase) S (synthesis phase) G2 (post-DNA synthesis phase)What is the most radioresistant phase?S phaseWhat is the most radiosensitive phase?mitosisWhat are the four subphases of mitosis?prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophaseWhat is the mean survival time?time between exposure and deathWhat is the period of cell growth that occurs before actual mitosis?interphaseWhat sub phase of mitosis can damage be viewed under a microscope?metaphaseWhat happens to germ cells?meiosisWhat is the special type of cell division that reduces the number of chromosomes in each daughter cell to half the number of chromosomes the parent cell has?meiosisWhat causes potentially harmful effects at the cellular level?ionizing radiationIf radiation damages the germ cell, the damage may be passed on to future generations in the form of?genetic mutationsWhat are changes in the genes?genetic mutationsWhen ionizing particles interact directly with vital biologic macromolecules such as DNA what occurs?Direct actionsApproximately ____ of all radiation induced damage is believed to be ultimately caused by ______2/3, hydroxyl free radical (OH*)Free radicals ___ the amount of biologic damage.increaseH202hydrogen peroxideWhat is a substance that is very poisonous to the cell?hydrogen peroxideThe theory that hydrogen peroxide is very poisonous to the cell is what type of effect?indirectOH*+OH*=H2O2What action causes the most damage to the cell?indirectWhat does initial ionization occur on?a distant noncritical molecule that transfers energy to a critical moleculeBecause the body is 80% water and <1% of DNA, essentially all effects of radiation in living cells result from what action?indirectWhat is radiolysis induced by?indirect actionWhat can show a point mutation?DNA damageChromosomes that are broken at the same nitrogenous base will contain unequal amounts of genetic material in each half?Double stand break in the same rung of DNAWhich type of effect of ionizing radiation on DNA is the most fatal?covalent cross-linkWhat results when irradiation occurs early in interphase before DNA synthesis takes place (before the next DNA sythesis)?chromosome aberrationsWhat results when irradiation of individual chromatids occur later in interphase after DNA synthesis has taken place?chromatid aberrationwhat occurs when the breaks rejoin in their original configuration with no visible damage?restitutionpart of the chromosome or chromatid is lost at the next cell divisiondeletionA grossly misshapen chromosome may be producedBroken-end rearrangementwhat are examples of broken end rearrangement?ring chromatids, dicentric chromosomes, and anaphase bridgesWhat is the concept of radiation damage resulting from discrete and random events?target theoryWhat is programmed cell death (interphase death)?apoptosisWhat dies without attempting division?apoptosisWhen LET ______ the chances of producing a significant biologic response in the radiosensitive DNA macromolecule growsincreasesWhat are examples of Low LET?xray, gamma, and betaWhat causes damage to a cell primarily through an indirect action that involves the production of molecules called free radicals?low LETWhat is most influenced by oxygen?Low LETWhat is an example of High LET?alpha particlesWhat can be implanted, ingested, injected, or inhaled?High LETWhat is more likely to interact significantly with biologic tissue?high LETWhat loses energy more rapidly than low LET but transfers more energy?high LETThe higher the RBE the _________ the type of radiationmore damagingWhat describes the relative capabilities of radiation with differing LETs to produce a particular biologic effect?RBEWhat is used to calculate the equivalent dose to determine the ability of a dose of any kind of ionizing radiation to cause biologic damage?radiation weighting factorWhen irradiated in an oxygenated (aerobic state), biologic tissue is more sensitive to radiation than when it is exposed to radiation under anoxic/hypoxic (non aerobic/low oxygen)oxygen enhancement ratioWhat increases the effects of ionizing radiation on biologic tissue increasing the tissue radiosensitivity?oxygenWhen will the effects of ionizing radiation with oxygen remain fixed?if it occurs during an oxygen mediated stateWhat states that the radiosensitivity if cells is directly proportional to the reproductive activity and inversely proportional to the degree of differentiation?Law of bergonie and tribondeauWhat states that the most pronounced radiation effects occur in cells having the least maturity and specialization and the greatest reproductive activity and the longest mitotic phase?Law of bergonie and tribondeauWhen does hematologic death occur?between 2-10 grayWhat is the lethal dose of animals?LD 50/30What does LD 50/30 meandeath in 50% of the subject within 30 daysWhat is the lethal dose of humans?LD 50/60 which is approximately a dose of 3.5 graywhy is the lethal dose of a human 50/60 and animals 50/30because humans recovery time is longer-death may still occur at a later time with a substantial whole body exposureWhat is the first to be effected by ionizing radiation in the body?lymphocytesWhat are the most radiosensitive blood cells in the human body?lymphocytes (manufactured in bone marrow)What is the earliest form of skin damage?basal cell damageWhat type of tissue is the most radioresistant?nervous tissuewhat are germ cells?reproductive cellswhat doses may cause temporary sterility for as long as 12 months?2 grayWhat dose may cause permanent sterility even at small doses of ionizing radiation?5-6 grayWhat dose could decrease the male sperm count?0.1 gray or 100 mGyWhat are examples of early effects?erythema, nausea, desquamation, vomiting, epilationWhen biologic effect of radiation occur relatively soon after humans receive high doses?early effectsWhen do early deterministic somatic effects occur?minutes, hours, days, and weeksWhat are exposures to high levels of radiation to the whole body and early responses?early deterministic somatic effects or radiation sicknessWhat are deterministic effects examples?cataracts and fertility impairmentThere are 3 separate dose related syndromes that occur as part of the total body syndrome (early effects) what are they?hematopoietic syndrome, gastrointestinal syndrome, cerebrovascular syndromeWhen does gastrointestinal syndrome occur?4-10 days of exposureWhat results when central nervous system and cardiovascular system receives doses of (requires the greatest amount of exposure)?cerebrovascular syndrome at doses of 50 grayWhat is the last and most severe of the acute radiation syndromes and involves neurological symptoms?cerebrovascular syndromeWhat are the major response stages of acute radiation syndrome in order?prodromal, latent, manifest illness, recovery or deathIn which acute radiation syndrome response stage do acute symptoms appear first in?prodromalWhen do prodromal syndrome effects appear?within hours after whole body dosesWhat is the dose that causes prodromal syndromes to occur?1 gray or moreWhat is the period in which no symptoms occur?latent periodWhat is the period when signs and symptoms that affect the hematopoietic, gastrointestinal, and cerebrovascular systems become visible?manifest illnessIn which major response phase dose acute illness occur?manifest illnessWhat effects have a threshold?deterministic effectsWhat effects happen by chance?stochastic effectsWhat is an example of a stochastic effect?cancerThe shrinkage of organs is called?atrophySingle radiation exposure of ____ to the ovaries or testes and usually results in temporary sterility2 grayWhen can chromosome and chromatic aberrations be observed?metaphaseWhat is radiation induced damage at the cellular level may lead to measurable somatic and hereditary damage in living organism as a whole later in life?late effectsWhat are outcomes that are long term results of radiation exposure? (small doses for long periods-techs)late effectsRadiobiologists engaged in research that has a common goal to establish relationships between radiation and dose responsedose response curvesWhat is demonstrated graphically through a curve that maps the observed effects of radiation to the dose of radiation received?radiation dose response curveas dose increases so doeffectsWhat is defined as the point at which a response or reaction to an increasing stimulation first occurs?thresholdnothing occurs before this dosethresholdno radiation dose can be consideredsafestochastic effects and genetic effects at low dose levels from low LET radiation such as the type of radiation used in diagnostic xray appear to follows what time of curvelinear quadratic non thresholdWhat is directly proportional to the dose received?linearWhat type of curve is used to represent cancer?linear non thresholdWhat implies that the chance of a biologic response to ionizing radiation is directly proportional to the dose received?linear non thresholdWhat dose curve is death from acute radiation?non linear thresholdAccording to which curve is no radiation exposure level assumed absolutely safe?linear non thresholdWhat is an accurate reflection of stochastic and genetic effects at low-dose levels from low LET radiation?linear quadratic non threshold curveWhen living organisms that have been exposed to radiation sustain biologic effects, the effects of this exposure are classified as?somatic effectsWhat is irradiation of an individuals genetic material leading to a genetic malformation in offspring?non somatic=geneticIn stochastic effects the probability that the effect happens depends on the ______, but the ______ does not.dose received, severityIn deterministic both the ____ and the _____ of the effect depend upon the dose.probability and severityThese effects can be directly related to the dose received-high doses or low doses over a period of timelate somatic effectsWhat are carcinogenesis and embryologic effects considered?stochasticWhat is cataractogenesis considered?deterministicWhat model predicts that the number of excess cancers will increase as the natural incidence of cancer increases with the advantage age in a population?relative riskWhat includes additional mathematical terms that produce a deviation form a straight line behavior at low doses so that the risk at low doses is predicted to be less than at high doses?linear quadratic modelWhat is the most important late stochastic effect caused by exposure to ionizing radiation?carcinogensisEarly radiation workers had an increase of what?leukemiaWhat effects did the radium watch dial painters experience?osteoporosis, osteogenic sarcoma, and other cancer such as carcinomas of the epithelial cells lining the nasopharynx and paranasal sinusesWhat bones were most frequently included in the radium watch dial painters cancer?pelvis, femur, and mandibleWhat effects did the uranium miners experience?50% of them got lung cancerWhat was there an increase of in women who had postpartum mastitis?breast cancerWhat occurred in the children of the marshall islanders?thyroid cancerCataractogenesis is?deterministicWhat is the latent period of cataracts?15 yearsWhat occurs when the lens of the eye contains transparent fibers that transmit light?cataractsWhat results in partial or complete vision loss?cataractsHighly ionizing neutron radiation is extremely efficient in inducing what?cataractsAll life forms seem to be most vulnerable to radation during what stage of developement?embryonic (before birth)What are the three stages of gestation?preimplantation, organogenesis, and fetal stageWhat corresponds to 0-9 days after conception?preimplantationWhat corresponds to approximately 10-12 weeks after conception?organogenesisWhat may occur in organogenesis?mental retardation and microcephalyWhat corresponds to the term?fetal stageWhich trimester is the most crucial?the firstDuring the first trimester what will occur if a dose of 200 mSv is received?within 2 weeks embryo death or nothing will occurDuring the first 12 weeks of development doses in excess of ______may result in death or severe congenital abnormalities200 mSvWhat are agents that increase the risk of genetic mutations?mutagensWhat effects happen during gestation?teratrogenicWhat is the only concrete evidence showing that ionizing radiation causes genetic defects?experimentation with fruit flies and mice at high dosesWhat is a 100% safe gonadal dose?noneWhat is the radiation dose that causes the number of spontaneous mutations occurring in a given generation to increase to two times their original number?doubling doseWhat is based on heredity factors and the dose is estimated to 1.56 sV?doubling doseWhat are examples of long term effects?cataracts, cancer, and leukemiaWhat relieves pain?pallative therapywho was the first known person to die from radiation exposure?clarence dalyWhat is the most lethal of exposures?deathwhat are lethal effects measured by?cell survivalWhat gives high dose to a patient?cardiac cathWhat must you know to determine early vs late effect?the length of time from irradiation to the 1st symptomWhat are effects that appear in the individual?somaticWhat are effects that occur in future generations?geneticWhat effects are random in nature and have a probability that the effect occurring depends on the amount of radiation?-ex.leukemia and cancerstochasticWhat effect increases the severity of effects as radiation dose increase?-ex.skin burns and organ dysfunctionsdeterministicWhat is the transfer of energy that can remove orbital electrons from the atoms from which they are attached?ionizationWhat are diagnostic xrays considered?low doseWhat is radiation therapy considered?high doseWhat are examples of particulate radiation?alpha, beta neutron, and protonWhat depends on the size of the area irradiated, dose rate, and individuals radiosensitivity?skin erythema doseThe amount of absorbed radiation that causes redness over an area of skin after irradiationskin erythema doseWhat type of effect is skin erythema?earlyThe amount of radiation exposure one can be exposed to with out any harmful acute effectstolerance doseThe ability of different types of radiation to produce the same biologic response in an organismtissue weightingwhat is the SI unit measurement of radiation transferred to a point (surface of patients body)?air kermaWhat is gradually replacing the traditional quantity, exposure?air kermaWhat is based on epidemiologic studies of atomic bomb survivors and when the effective dose was adopted?tissue weightingWhat is the sum total of air kerma over the exposed area of the patients body surface and can be measured after an imaging exam?dose area productWhat has a quality factor of one?xray, gamma, and betaWhat is used for radiation protection purposes when a person receives exposure from various types of ionizing radiation?equivalent doseWhat determines biologic damage to humans?equivalent doseWhat is the formula for equivalent dose?Sv=GyxWrWhat is the relative risk of the organ irradiated to develop cancer?tissue weighting factorWhat is the tissue weighting factor of alpha?20What interactions are responsible for patient dose?photoelectricWhen xray photons pass through biologic tissue without interactiondirect transmissionpatient dose decreases as kvpincreasespatient dose decreases as mAsdecreasesWhat is the annual dose of an occupational worker?50 mSvWhat are biologic effects a result of?quantity of radiation, LET, sensitivity of the organ irradiated, amount of body irradiatedA low dose delivered continuously but at a low dose rate is considered to beprotracted