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50 terms

Plants (SAT II Review)

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Gymnosperm
Tracheophytes that have seeds and cones, but no flowers
Angiosperm
Tracheophytes that have seeds and flowers, but no cones
Monocot
Type of angiosperm with parallel veins, vascular bundles, fibrous roots, leaves in threes
Dicot
Type of angiosperm with networked leaf veins, vascular rings, tap roots, leaves in fives
Example of monocot
Three leaf clover
Example of dicot
Maple leaf and rose
Non-Tracheophytes
Plants without vascular tissue
Vascular
Refers to blood vessels, but transport vessels in the case of plants
Example of non-tracheophyte
Moss
Xylem
Type of vascular tissue in plants that carries water and minerals up from roots; made of vessel elements and tracheids
Phloem
Type of vascular tissue in plants that carries nutrients from leaves and any other photosynthesizing cell downwards; composed of companion cells and sieve-2 members
Tracheophytes
Plants with vascular tissue
Sclerenchyma
Elongated dead cells used for support
Collenchyma
Living elongated cells used for support; generally used in young plants or in the growing parts of plants
Parenchyma
Everything else; tissue that's performing metabolic functions in the plant
Cortex
Specialized type of parenchyma cell between vascular tissue and outside of a stem
Pith
Specialized type of parenchyma cell at the center of the stem
Epidermal cells
Top and bottom layer of cells on a leaf; secretes a waxy cuticle onto the surface of the leaf; makes the leaf waterproof
Stomata
Pores on the bottom of a leaf that help plants undergo gas exchange (water vapor and oxygen leave, CO2 comes in)
Primary growth
Vertical growth (lengthening of a plant)
Secondary growth
Horizontal growth
Meristem
Any region of the plant where this rapid cell division is happening
Apical meristem
Tissue where primary growth is occurring
Vascular cambium
Type of meristematic tissue located between xylem and phloem that makes xylem and phloem
Cork cambium
Tissue located towards the outside of a tree trunk; makes bark
Auxin
Hormone in plants responsible for promoting general growth and plant behaviors
Plant behaviors
Tropisms
Cytokinin
Hormone in plants responsible for tissue differentiation and breaking seed dormancy (wakes a seed up when the conditions are right for it to begin germination)
Gibberellins
Hormone in plants that promotes rapid growth in the early life of a plant; also promotes the growth involved in germination
Abscisic acid
Hormone in plants that promotes dormancy (EX: causes the leaves to fall off in the winter)
Ethylene gas
Hormone in plants responsible for fruit ripening (fruit releases this gas and it causes the fruit to ripen)
Phototropism
A plant growing towards a light source; auxin causes cells on the dark side of the plant to elongate towards the light
Gravitropism
Describes plants growing either with or against gravity
Positive gravitropism
Growing with gravity (downwards)
Negative gravitropism
Growing opposite gravity (upwards)
Example of positive gravitropism
Vines
Thigmotropism
Plants growing towards touch (EX: a vine wrapping around a tree; must be constantly in contact with it)
Photoperiodism
Describes in what conditions plants will flower
Long day plants
Only flowers in 12+ hours of sunlight
Short day plants
Only flower in less than 12 hours of sunlight
Day-neutral plants
Flower all the time
First phase of life cycle
Begin with diploid sporophyte
Second phase of life cycle
Diploid sporophyte produces haploid spores by meiosis
Third phase of life cycle
Spore develops by mitosis into a multicellular organism called the gametophyte
Fourth phase of life cycle
Gametophyte produces many haploid gametes (male and female, sperm and ovum respectively) by mitosis
Fifth phase of life cycle
Haploid gametes fuse in the process of fertilization to form the diploid zygote
Sixth phase of life cycle
Zygote forms by mitosis into a new diploid sporophyte
Sporophyte dominant
Condition of most plants; sporophyte is much bigger and longer lasting than the gametophyte (spends more time being a sporophyte than a gametophyte)
Gametophyte dominant example
Non-tracheophytes
Sporophyte dominant example
Tracheophytes