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Psychology Chapters 3 & 4 Sensation & Perception, Consciousness
Terms in this set (94)
This theory proposes that humans respond to random neural activity while in REM sleep as if it has meaning.
Brain waves that indicate a relaxed, drowsy state.
Stimulant drugs; methamphetamine falls in this class of drugs.
Refers to the processing of information with little or no conscious effort: detection, encoding, and sometimes storage of information without awareness.
Depressant drug that decreases neural activity and reduces anxiety; a type of sedative.
Brain waves that indicate an alert, awake state.
The daily patterns roughly following the 24-hour cycle of daylight and darkness; 24-hour cycle of physiological and behavioral functioning.
The state of being aware of oneself, one's thoughts, and/or the environment; includes various levels of conscious awareness.
delirium tremens (DTs)
Withdrawal symptoms that can occur when a heavy drinker suddenly stops or significantly cuts down alcohol consumption; can include sweating, restlessness, hallucinations, severe tremors, and seizures.
Brain waves that indicate a deep sleep.
A class of psychoactive drugs that depress or slow down activity in the central nervous system.
A group of psychoactive drugs that can produce hallucinations (auditory, visual, or kinesthetic), distorted sensory experiences, alterations of mood, and distorted thinking.
An altered state of consciousness allowing for changes in perceptions and behaviors, which result from suggestions made by a hypnotist.
Sleep disorder characterized by an inability to fall asleep or stay asleep, impacting both the quality and the quantity of sleep.
The hidden meaning of a dream, often concealed by the manifest content of the dream.
lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD)
A synthetically produced, odorless, tasteless, and colorless hallucinogen that is very potent; produces extreme changes in sensations and perceptions.
The apparent meaning of a dream; the remembered story line of a dream.
A synthetic drug chemically similar to the stimulant methamphetamine and the hallucinogen mescaline; produces a combination of stimulant and hallucinogenic effects.
A neurological disorder characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness, which includes lapses into sleep and napping.
Frightening dreams that occur during REM sleep.
non-rapid eye movement (non-REM)
The nondreaming sleep that occurs during sleep Stages 1 to 4.
obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea
A serious disturbance of non-REM sleep characterized by complete absence of air flow (apnea) or reduced air flow (hypopnea).
A class of psychoactive drugs that cause a sense of euphoria; a drug that imitates the endorphins naturally produced in the brain.
A class of psychoactive drugs that minimizes perceptions of pain.
With constant use of some psychoactive drugs, the body no longer functions normally without the drug.
Substances that can cause changes in psychological activities such as sensation, perception, attention, judgment, memory, self-control, emotion, thinking, and behavior; substances that cause changes in conscious experiences.
With constant use of some psychoactive drugs, a strong desire or need to continue using the substance occurs without the evidence of tolerance or withdrawal symptoms
rapid eye movement (REM)
The stage of sleep associated with dreaming; sleep characterized by bursts of eye movements, with brain activity similar to that of a waking state, but with a lack of muscle tone.
An increased amount of sleep in the REM stage with the first sleep session following sleep deprivation.
REM sleep behavior disorder
A sleep disturbance in which the mechanism responsible for paralyzing the body during REM sleep is not functioning, resulting in the acting out of dreams.
The ability to focus awareness on a small segment of information that is available through our sensory systems.
A disturbance of non-REM sleep, generally occurring in children; characterized by screaming, staring fearfully, and usually no memory of the episode the following morning.
A class of drugs that increase neural activity in the central nervous system.
The active ingredient of marijuana.
Brain waves that indicate the early stage of sleep.
With constant use of some psychoactive drugs, a condition in which the body requires more and more of the drug to create the original effect; a sign of physiological dependence.
With constant use of some psychoactive drugs, a condition in which the body becomes dependent and then reacts when the drug is withheld.
The weakest stimuli that can be detected 50% of the time.
The process by which the lens changes shape in order to focus on images near and far.
An image that appears to linger in the visual field after its stimulus, or source, is removed.
The height of a wave; the distance from midpoint to peak, or from midpoint to the trough of a wave.
The sense of hearing.
Information gathered from both eyes to help judge depth and distance.
The location where the optic nerve exits the retina.
Fluid-filled, snail-shaped organ of the inner ear lined with the basilar membrane.
Objects are perceived as maintaining their color, even with changing sensory data.
Specialized light receptors responsible for our sensation of color and our ability to sense details.
A binocular cue used to judge distance and depth based on the tension of the muscles that direct where the eyes are focusing.
The clear, outer layer of the eye that shields it from damage and focuses incoming light waves.
Ability of the eyes to adjust to dark after exposure to brightness.
Taking basic sensory information about incoming stimuli and processing it for further interpretation.
The ability to perceive three-dimensional objects and judge distances.
The minimum difference between two stimuli that can be noticed 50% of the time.
extrasensory perception (ESP)
The purported ability to obtain information about the world without any sensory stimuli.
Neurons in the visual cortex specialized in detecting specific features of the visual experience, such as angles, lines, and movements.
A central principle of Gestalt psychology, involving the shifting of focus; as attention is focused on one object, all other features drop or recede into the background.
The number of sound waves passing a given point per second; higher frequency is perceived as higher pitch, and lower frequency is perceived as lower pitch.
States that pitch is determined by the vibrating frequency of the sound wave, basilar membrane, and associated neural impulses.
Suggests that the perception of pain will either increase or decrease through the interaction of biopsy-chosocial factors; signals are sent to open or close "gates" that control the neurological pathways for pain.
The natural tendency for the brain to organize stimuli into a whole, rather than perceiving the parts and pieces.
The sensation of taste.
The color of an object, determined by the wavelength of light it reflects.
A perception incongruent with sensory data.
The muscle responsible for changing the size of the pupil.
Sensory system that conveys information about body position and movement.
Drawing on past experiences and knowledge to understand and interpret sensory information.
Ability of the eyes to adjust to light after being in the dark.
Depth and distance cues that require the use of only one eye.
The sense of smell.
Perception of color derives from a special group of neurons that respond to opponent colors (red-green, blue-yellow).
The bundle of axons from ganglion cells leading to the visual cortex.
The study of extrasensory perception.
The organization and interpretation of sensory stimuli by the brain.
The tendency to perceive objects in our environment as stable in terms of shape, size, and color, regardless of changes in the sensory data received.
The tendency to perceive stimuli in a specific manner based on past experiences and expectations.
Cells that absorb light energy and turn it into chemical and electrical signals for the brain to process.
The degree to which a sound is high or low determined by the frequency of its sound wave.
States that pitch corresponds to the location of the vibrating hair cells along the cochlea.
Specialized nerve endings primarily located in the muscles and joints that provide information about body location and orientation.
The layer of the eye that contains photoreceptor cells and the location for the transduction of light energy into neural activity.
A binocular cue that uses the difference between the images the two eyes see to determine the distance of objects.
Specialized light receptors in the retina that are responsible for sight when the light level is low; not sensitive to color, but useful for night vision.
The process by which sensory organs in the eyes, ears, nose, mouth, skin, and other tissues receive and detect stimuli.
Sensory receptors tend to become less sensitive to constant stimuli.
An object is perceived as maintaining its shape, regardless of the image projected on the retina.
signal detection theory
A theory explaining how various factors influence our ability to detect weak signals in the environment
An object is perceived as maintaining its size, regardless of the image projected on the retina.
The process of transforming stimuli into neural signals.
The perception of color is the result of three types of cones, each sensitive to particular wavelengths in the red, green, and blue spectrums.
The sense of balance and equilibrium.
States that the perception of pitches between 400 and 4,000 Hz is made possible by neurons working together to fire in volleys.
The distance between wave peaks (or troughs)
The change in a stimulus that will be just noticeable is a constant ratio of the original stimulus.
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