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Psychology Chapters 5 & 6, Learning & Memory
Terms in this set (86)
The initial learning phase in both classical and operant conditioning
The degree to which a trait or behavior helps an organism survive.
The scientific study of observable behavior.
The tendency for animals to be predisposed or inclined to form associations.
Learning process in which two stimuli become associated with each other; when an originally neutral stimulus is conditioned to elicit an involuntary response.
The mental image of the layout of a physical space.
conditioned emotional response
An emotional reaction acquired through classical conditioning; process by which an emotional reaction becomes associated with a previously neutral stimulus.
conditioned response (CR)
A learned response to a conditioned stimulus.
conditioned stimulus (CS)
A previously neutral stimulus that an organism learns to associate with an unconditioned stimulus.
conditioned taste aversion
A form of classical conditioning that occurs when an organism learns to associate a particular food or drink with illness.
A schedule of reinforcement in which every target behavior is reinforced.
In classical conditioning, the process by which the CR decreases after repeated exposure to the CS in the absence of the US; in operant conditioning, the disappearance of a learned behavior through the removal of its reinforcer.
A schedule in which the reinforcer comes after a preestablished interval of time goes by; the response or behavior is only reinforced after the given interval is over.
A schedule in which the subject must exhibit a predetermined number of desired behaviors before a reinforcer is given.
A basic form of learning evident when an organism does not respond as strongly or as often to an event following multiple exposures to it.
higher order conditioning
With repeated pairings of a conditioned stimulus and a neutral stimulus, the second neutral stimulus becomes a conditioned stimulus as well.
The tendency for animals to revert to instinctual behaviors after a behavior pattern has been learned.
Learning that occurs without awareness and regardless of reinforcement, and is not evident until needed.
law of effect
Thorndike's principle stating that behaviors are more likely to be repeated when followed by pleasurable outcomes, and those followed by something unpleasant are less likely to be repeated.
A relatively enduring change in behavior or thinking that results from experiences
The individual or character whose behavior is being imitated.
The removal of something desirable following an unwanted behavior, with the intention of decreasing that behavior.
The removal of an unpleasant stimulus following a target behavior, which increases the likelihood of occurring again.
A stimulus that does not cause a relevant automatic or reflexive response.
Learning that occurs as a result of watching the behavior of others.
Learning that occurs when voluntary actions become associated with consequences.
A schedule of reinforcement in which target behaviors are reinforced intermittently, not continuously.
partial reinforcement effect
The tendency for behaviors acquired through intermittent reinforcement to be more resistant to extinction than those acquired through continuous reinforcement.
The addition of something unpleasant following an unwanted behavior, with the intention of decreasing that behavior
The process by which pleasant reinforcers are added or presented following the targeted behavior, increasing the likelihood of occurring again.
A reinforcer that satisfies a biological need, such as food, water, physical contact; innate reinforcer.
Actions that are kind, generous, and benefit others.
The application of a consequence that decreases the likelihood of a behavior recurring.
Process by which an organism learns to associate a voluntary behavior with its consequences.
Consequences, such as events or objects, that increase the likelihood of a behavior reoccurring.
Reinforcers that do not satisfy biological needs but often gain their power through their association with primary reinforcers.
The use of reinforcers to guide behavior to the acquisition of a desired, complex behavior.
In classical conditioning, the reappearance of the conditioned response following its extinction; occurs in response to the conditioned stimulus after a period of rest.
An event or occurrence that generally leads to a response.
The ability to differentiate between a conditioned stimulus and other stimuli sufficiently different from it.
The tendency for stimuli similar to the conditioned stimulus to elicit the conditioned response.
A method of shaping that uses reinforcers to condition a series of small steps that gradually approach the target behavior.
unconditioned response (UR)
A reflexive, involuntary response to an unconditioned stimulus.
unconditioned stimulus (US)
A stimulus that automatically triggers an involuntary response without any learning needed.
A schedule in which the reinforcer comes after an interval of time goes by, but the length of the interval changes from trial to trial.
A schedule in which the number of desired responses or behaviors that must occur before a reinforcer is given changes across trials and is based on an average number of responses to be reinforced.
A type of memory loss; an inability to create new memories following damage or injury to the brain.
Grouping numbers, letters, or other items into meaningful subsets as a strategy for increasing the quantity of information that can be maintained in shortterm memory.
Spreading out study sessions over time with breaks in between.
Exact copies of the sounds we hear; a form of sensory memory.
The encoding and storage of information with conscious effort, or awareness.
The method of connecting incoming information to knowledge in long-term memory; a deep level of encoding.
The process through which information enters our memory system.
encoding specificity principle
Memories are more easily recalled when the context and cues at the time of encoding are similar to those at the time of retrieval.
The record of memorable experiences or "episodes" including when and where an experience occurred; a type of explicit memory.
A type of memory you are aware of having and can consciously express in words or declare, including memories of facts and experiences.
A detailed account of circumstances surrounding an emotionally significant or shocking, sometimes historic, event.
Visual impressions that are photograph-like in their accuracy but dissolve in less than a second; a form of sensory memory.
A memory of something you know or know how to do, but that might be automatic or unconscious; this type of memory is often difficult to bring to awareness and express.
A stage of memory with essentially unlimited capacity that stores enduring information about facts and experiences.
The increased efficiency of neural communication over time, resulting in learning and the formation of memories.
Technique of repeating information to be remembered, increasing the length of time it can be held in short-term memory.
Studying for long periods of time without breaks.
Information collected and stored in the brain that is generally retrievable for later use.
The location where memories are etched in the brain via physiological changes.
The tendency for new and misleading information obtained after an incident to distort one's memory of it.
Technique to improve memory.
The tendency to remember items at the beginning of a list.
The stimulation of memories as a result of retrieval cues in the environment.
The tendency for information learned in the past to interfere with the retrieval of new material.
The unconscious memory of how to carry out a variety of skills and activities; a type of implicit memory.
The process of retrieving information held in long-term memory without the help of explicit retrieval cues.
The tendency to remember items at the end of a list.
The process of matching incoming data to information stored in long-term memory.
Material learned previously is acquired more quickly in subsequent exposures.
The process of accessing information encoded and stored in memory.
Stimuli that help in the retrieval of stored information that is difficult to access.
The tendency for recently learned information to interfere with the retrieval of things learned in the past.
A type of memory loss; an inability to access memories formed prior to damage or injury to the brain, or difficulty retrieving them.
rich false memories
Recollections of an event that never occurred, which are expressed with emotions and confidence and include details.
The memory of information theoretically available to anyone, which pertains to general facts about the world; a type of explicit memory.
A stage of memory that captures near-exact copies of vast amounts of sensory stimuli for a very brief period of time.
serial position effect
The ability to recall items in a list depends on where they are in the series.
A stage of memory that temporarily maintains and processes a limited amount of information.
The process of preserving information for possible recollection in the future.
The active processing of information in short-term memory; the maintenance and manipulation of information in the memory system
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