Bio Process Lab

STUDY
PLAY
Alleles
Different variations of the same gene
Archaea
One of two domains of prokaryotes; share some characteristics with bacteria and eukaryotes, but also have unique characteristics of their own, (e.g., their cell wall structure)
Arm
The part of a compound microscope that connects the tube to the base
Asexual Reproduction
Reproduction that does not involve the union of gametes; results in offspring that are genetically identical to their parent
Bacteria
One of two domains of prokaryotes; live in an extremely wide range of environments; some bacteria cause disease while many are mutualistic and carry out extremely important biological processes
Binary Fission
The asexual process by which prokaryotes reproduce; the DNA is reproduced, the original DNA and replicated DNA move to opposite sides of the cell, and a cell wall forms to separate the two, forming the daughter cells
Cell
A collection of biological matter; the basic unit of all life
Cell Cycle
The series of events that take place in a cell as it grows, develops, and reproduce
Cell Division
A part of the cell cycle in which a parent cell's growth stops and it separates into two or more daughter cells
Cell Membrane
A selectively permeable phospholipid bilayer with embedded proteins that protect the cell from its surroundings
Cell Theory
A widely accepted theory which describes properties of cell, primarily that all living things are composed of at least one cell, cells are the most basic unit of life, and all cells are produced from pre-existing cells
Cell Wall
A tough layer that surrounds plants, fungi, and prokaryotic cells; provides protection and support for cell and prevents over-expansion
Co-dominance
Both dominant alleles in an individual are expressed and visible in the phenotype
Conjugation
The transfer of genetic material between bacterial cells by direct contact or by a bridge-like connection between two cells
Cytoplasm
The portion of a cell that's enclosed within the cell membrane excluding the contents of the nucleus; comprised of organelles, cytosol, and small, insoluble particles called inclusions
Cytosol
The area of the cytoplasm not confined within an organelle; made of water, organic molecules, and salts
Daughter Cell
The cells produced through cell division
Diaphragm
A rotating disk under the stage used to vary the amount of light passing through the stage opening
Dominant Allele
An allele that will always be expressed, except for occurrences such as, but not limited to, co-dominance
Eukaryotic Cell
A cell whose genetic material is contained within a nucleus; contain membrane-bound organelles
Eyepiece Lens
The lens at the top of a compound microscope that an observer looks into
Genotype
The genetic makeup of an organism or group of organisms with reference to certain traits
Golgi Aparatus
Stacks of flattened sacs of unit membrane (cisternae), vesicles pinch off the edges; it modifies chemicals to make them functional, secretes chemicals in tiny vesicles, stores chemicals
Illuminator
A steady light source commonly used in place of a mirror in compound microscopes
Karyotype
A photograph of chromosomes grouped in order in pairs
Lysosome
Membrane bound bag containing hydrolytic enzymes that break large molecules down into small molecules by inserting a molecule of water into the chemical bond
Monosomy
A genetic discrepancy in which an individual is missing a chromosome
Multicellular
Consisting of multiple cells
Multiple Alleles
A type of non-Mendelian inheritance pattern where there are three or more alleles for a single trait; results in three or more phenotypes (e.g., blood types)
Nondisjunction
The failure of chromosomes to completely separate and segregate into daughter cells during meiosis; results in monosomy or trisomy
Nuclear Envelope
The double-membrane that encloses a cell nucleus
Nucleolus
A round, membraneless body located inside the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell; the site of ribosome synthesis and assembly
Nucleus
Double-membrane compartment, membranes contain pores to regulate transport; the location of DNA maintenance and RNA transcription; controls all activities of the cell
Objective Lens
The lens of a compound microscope closest to the object; common powers are 4x, 10x, 40x, and 100x
Organelle
Specialized structures within a cell
Parent Cell
The cell that splits to form daughter cells in cell division
Pedigree
A chart which displays all of the known phenotypes for an organism and its ancestors
Phenotype
The physical appearance of an organism resulting from the interaction of the genotype and the environment
Prokaryotic Cell
A cell whose genetic material is not contained within a nucleus and lack membrane-bound organelles
Punnett Square
A genetic probability diagram used to show the gametes of each parent and their possible offspring
Rack Stop
An adjustment of compound microscopes that determines how close the objective lens can get to the slide
Recessive Allele
An allele that can be masked by any present dominant alleles
Revolving Nosepiece
Also known as a turret, the part of a compound microscope that holds two or more objective lenses and can be rotated to easily change power
Ribosome
Non-membraneous, spherical bodies composed of RNA (ribonucleic acid) and protein enzymes; the site of protein synthesis
Sexual Reproduction
Reproduction involving the union of gametes; results in genetic variation among offspring
Stage
The flat platform on compound microscopes where one places their slides for observation
Stage Clips
Clips on a compound microscope's stage used to hold the slide in place
Trisomy
A genetic discrepancy in which an individual has an extra chromosome
Tube
Connects the eyepiece to the objective lenses in a compound microscope
Turret
Also known as a revolving nosepiece, the part of a compound microscope that holds two or more objective lenses and can be rotated to easily change power
Unicellular
Consisting of one cell
Calipers
Used to measure the widths of objects
Double Pan Balance
Compares the mass of two objects; can be used to measure an object's mass by using predetermined masses
Graduated Cylinder
Used to measure volumes of liquids; can also be used to measure volumes of solids by placing the solid in a predetermined amount of liquid and observing how much liquid is displaced by the solid
Litmus Paper
Strips of paper treated with litmus used as an indicator of pH
Ruler
Used to measure length
Thermometer
Used to measure temperature
Triple Beam Balance
Used to measure the mass of an object