Final Exam

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A student is observing a cell under the microscope. It is observed to have supercoiled DNA with histones. Which of the following would also be observed by the student?
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Terms in this set (135)
A runner has depleted all the oxygen available for muscle energy. Which of the following will facilitate his continued muscle performance?Anaerobic glycolysisA faculty member asks a student to identify the appropriate term for the movement of a solute from an area of greater to lesser concentration. Which answer indicates the nursing student understood the teaching?DiffusionA nurse is reading a chart and sees the term oncotic pressure. The nurse recalls that oncotic pressure (colloid osmotic pressure) is determined by:plasma proteins.A patient has a body fluid of 300 mOsm/kg. This lab result is measuring:osmolality.A nurse is discussing the movement of fluid across the arterial end of capillary membranes into the interstitial fluid surrounding the capillary. Which process of fluid movement is the nurse describing?Hydrostatic pressureHow are potassium and sodium transported across plasma membranes?By adenosine triphosphate enzyme (ATPase)The ion transporter that moves Na+ and Ca2+ simultaneously in the same direction is an example of which of the following types of transport?SymportDuring which process are bacteria engulfed for ingestion?PhagocytosisSome cancer drugs work during the cell cycle phase where nuclear and cytoplasmic divisions occur. What is this cell cycle phase called?MWhich causes the rapid change in the resting membrane potential that initiates an action potential?Sodium gates open, and sodium rushes into the cell, changing the membrane potential from negative to positiveSodium gates open, and sodium rushes into the cell, changing the membrane potential from negative to positiveK+ rushing into the cellA nurse teaching the staff about platelet-derived growth factor includes information that platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) stimulates the production of:connective tissue cells.The phase of the cell cycle during which the centromeres split and the sister chromatids are pulled apart is referred to as:anaphase.What is the role of cytokines in cell reproduction?Provide growth factor for tissue growth and development.A student is reviewing functions of the cell. The student would be correct in identifying a chief function of the nerve cell as:conductivity.A report comes back indicating that muscular atrophy has occurred. A nurse recalls that muscular atrophy involves a decrease in muscle cell:size.During childhood, the thymus decreases in size, and this is referred to as what type of atrophy?PhysiologicWhen planning care for a cardiac patient, the nurse knows that in response to an increased workload, cardiac myocardial cells will experience hypertrophy which is an:increase in size.A 55-year-old male with a 30-year history of smoking is examined for respiratory disturbance. Examination of his airway (bronchial) reveals that stratified squamous epithelial cells have replaced the normal columnar ciliated cells. This type of cellular adaptation is called:metaplasia.When planning care for the pregnant patient, the nurse will recall that the mammary glands enlarge as a consequence of:hormonal hyperplasia.A 24-year-old female presents with excessive menstrual bleeding. The physician identified endometrial changes that are due to hormonal imbalances. These cellular changes would be referred to as:pathologic hyperplasia.A 55-year-old male is diagnosed with hepatocellular cancer secondary to hepatitis C. If the cancerous region of the liver is removed, the remaining cells would undergo:compensatory hyperplasia.A 40-year-old female's Pap smear indicates abnormal changes in the shape and organization of cervical cells. Which term would be used to identify this type of change?DysplasiaA 75-year-old male presents with chest pain on exertion. The chest pain is most likely due to hypoxic injury secondary to:ischemia.A patient has a heart attack that leads to progressive cell injury that causes cell death with severe cell swelling and breakdown of organelles. What term would the nurse use to define this process?NecrosisSodium and water accumulation in an injured cell are a direct result of:decreased ATP production.The early dilation (swelling) of the cell's endoplasmic reticulum results in:reduced protein synthesis.A 52-year-old male suffered a myocardial infarction secondary to atherosclerosis and ischemia. Once blood flow is returned to the damaged heart, reperfusion injury occurs as a result of:oxidation stress.A family presents to their primary care provider reporting headache, nausea, weakness, tinnitus, and vomiting. Which of the following would be the most likely explanation for these symptoms?Carbon monoxide poisoningA common pathway of irreversible cell injury involves increased intracellular:calcium.A 50-year-old male sustained a closed head injury as a result of a motor vehicle accident. CT scan revealed a collection of blood between the inner surface of the dura mater and the surface of the brain. Which type of injury will the nurse be caring for?Subdural hematomaA 20-year-old male presents to the emergency department with a jagged sharp-force injury that is longer than it is deep. Which type of wound will the nurse be caring for?Incised woundA 30-year-old female presents with a gunshot wound to the head. The wound has seared edges and a deep penetration of smoke and gunpowder fragments. This wound would be documented as a(ncontact range entrance.A 15-year-old female presents to the ER following a physical assault. She has internal damage to the neck with deep bruising. X-ray reveals fractures of the hyoid bone and tracheal and cricoid cartilage. Which of the following most likely caused her injuries?Manual strangulationA 23-year-old male develops a black eye following a fight. When the aide asks the nurse why this occurred, the nurse's best response is that the bruising is due to an accumulation of:hemosiderin.Liquefactive necrosis occurs in the brain because:it is rich in hydrolytic enzymes and lipids.A 2 year old swallowed watch batteries. Following ingestion, kidney function was impaired, and the heart began to fail. Which of the following was the most likely cause?Coagulative necrosisA group of prison inmates developed tuberculosis following exposure to an infected inmate. On examination, tissues were soft and granular (like clumped cheese). Which of the following is the most likely cause?Caseous necrosisA 50-year-old female became infected with Clostridium bacteria and died a week later. Examination of her red blood cells revealed lysis of membranes. Which of the following was the most likely cause of her death?Gas gangreneWhile reading a textbook, a student reads the term apoptosis. The student recalls that apoptosis is a condition in which cells program themselves to:die.A 50-year-old male intravenous drug user is diagnosed with hepatitis C. Examination of the liver reveals cell death secondary to:infection-induced apoptosis.What principle should the nurse remember when trying to distinguish aging from diseases?It is difficult to tell the difference because both processes are believed to result from cell injury.When a nurse observes muscle stiffening occurring within 6-14 hours after death, the nurse should document this finding as the presence of:rigor mortis.When a nurse is checking a urinalysis, the finding that would alert the nurse to cellular injury is the presence of:excessive protein.Confirmation of somatic death is based on:complete cessation of respiration and circulation.A public health nurse is teaching the community about health promotion. Which information should the nurse include for innate immunity? Innate immunity is gained:at birth.Which statement indicates teaching was successful regarding collectins? Collectins are produced by thelungs.A 20-year-old male received a knife wound to the arm during an altercation. Which of the following types of immunity was compromised?Innate immunityBiochemical secretions that trap and kill microorganisms include:earwax.A 25-year-old female presents to her primary care provider reporting vaginal discharge of a white, viscous, and foul-smelling substance. She reports that she has been taking antibiotics for the past 6 months. Which finding will the nurse most likely see on the microorganism report?Decreased LactobacillusWhen an aide asks the nurse about the purpose of the inflammatory process, how should the nurse respond?To prevent infection of the injured tissue.A child fell off a swing and scraped his right knee. The injured area becomes painful. What else will the nurse observe upon assessment?Edema at injured siteA nurse recalls the mast cell, a major activator of inflammation, initiates the inflammatory response through the process of:degranulation.Which of the following individuals would be at greatest risk for an opportunistic infection?24 year old who is immunocompromisedThe directional migration of leukocytes along a chemical gradient is termed:chemotaxis.20-year-old male shoots his hand with a nail gun while replacing roofing shingles. Which of the following cell types would be the first to aid in killing bacteria to prevent infection in his hand?NeutrophilsThe predominant phagocyte of early inflammation is the:neutrophil.A 25-year-old female experiences a headache and takes aspirin for relief. A nurse recalls aspirin relieves the headache by:decreasing prostaglandin production.A 25-year-old male is in a car accident and sustains a fracture to his left femur with extensive soft tissue injury. The pain associated with the injury is related to:prostaglandins.The complement, clotting, and kinin systems share which of the following characteristics?Activation of a series of proenzymesThe classical pathway of the complement system is activated by:antigen-antibody complexes.patient has researched bradykinin on the Internet. Which information indicates the patient understands the functions of bradykinin? Bradykinin is involved in:increasing vascular permeability.after teaching the staff about the clotting system, which statement indicates the teaching was successful? The end product of the clotting system is:fibrin.5-year-old male is diagnosed with a bacterial infection. Cultures of the bacteria revealed lipopolysaccharides on the bacterial cell surface. Which of the complement pathways would be activated in this case?Alternative pathwayA nurse is preparing to teach on the subject of opsonins. Which information should the nurse include? Opsonins are molecules that:enhance phagocytosis.A 10-year-old male is diagnosed with a parasite. Which lab result should the nurse check for a response to the parasite?EosinophilsA 65-year-old female is diagnosed with metastatic breast cancer. She has developed muscle wasting. Which of the following substances would be produced in large quantities to eliminate the tumor cells and cause muscle wasting?Tumor necrosis factor-alphaWhen phagocytes begin to stick avidly to capillary walls, which process is occurring?MarginationAn infant develops a fever secondary to a bacterial infection. Which of the following most likely triggered the fever?Interleukin-1A 54-year-old male intravenous (IV) drug user is diagnosed with chronic hepatitis C. Testing revealed that he is a candidate for treatment. Which of the following could be used to treat his condition?INFsDuring inflammation, the liver is stimulated to release plasma proteins, collectively known as:acute phase reactants.3 year old is making play cakes in a sandbox and is eating the play cakes. The sand was also being used by cats as a litter box and was contaminated with toxoplasmosis. Which of the following would most likely also be present?Granuloma formationThe macrophage secretion that stimulates procollagen synthesis and secretion is:transforming growth factor-beta.A 30-year-old male was involved in a motor vehicle accident. The glass from the shattered window cut his face and neck. The scar, however, was raised and extended beyond the original boundaries of the wound. This pattern of scarring is caused by impaired:collagen synthesis.The nurse is reviewing the lab data of a newly admitted patient. The nurse notes the patient had an erythrocyte sedimentation done, and the results are quite elevated. The nurse would focus the care plan on which of the following conditions?Inflammationhe nurse identified each of the following clinical manifestations of inflammation. Which would the nurse classify as a local responseredness, heat, swelling, and pain.Which of the following is responsible for initiating clonal selection?AntigensWhich patient will develop active immunity? A patient who:has natural exposure to an antigen or receives an immunization.An experiment is designed to determine specific cell types involved in cell-mediated immune response. The experimenter is interested in finding cells that attack cells that have specific antigens. Which cells should be isolated?T-cytotoxic cellsA 6-year-old female is diagnosed with a bacterial infection of the respiratory system. Which of the following will most likely try to fight the antigen?AntibodiesWhich statement indicates a correct understanding of antibodies? The most abundant class of antibody in the serum is:IgG.The predominant antibody of a typical primary immune response is:IgM.An immunology nurse is caring for a patient. While planning care, which principle will the nurse remember? The primary role of IgA1 is to prevent infections in the:blood.A 23-year-old pregnant female visits her primary care provider for her final prenatal checkup. The primary care provider determines that the fetus has developed an infection in utero. Which of the following would be increased in the fetus at birth?IgMWhich portion of the antibody is responsible for the biologic functions of antibodiesFc portionA 25-year-old female has sexual relations with her boyfriend. Later she is told that the boyfriend is infected with Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Testing reveals that she does not have the disease. How is it possible that she did not contract the disease?Antibodies covered sites of attachment.A patient has a disease state that results from the secretion of toxins by bacteria. Which medical diagnosis will the nurse see documented on the chart?TetanusA 10-year-old male is stung by a bee while playing in the yard. He experiences a severe allergic reaction and has to go to the ER. The nurse providing care realizes this reaction is the result of:IgE.A patient has done research on monoclonal antibodies on the Internet. Which statement indicates a correct understanding? Pure monoclonal antibodies are produced by:laboratories.Which of the following statements indicates more teaching is needed regarding secondary lymph organs? ________ is/are a secondary lymphoid organ.liver20-year-old female is applying for nursing school and is required to be tested for immunity against several illnesses. Testing that looks at which of the following would be the best to determine immunity?TiterA macrophage was isolated and analyzed for major histocompatibility complex. Which of the following would be expected?MHC I and IIA 5-month-old child is admitted to the hospital with recurring respiratory infections. A possible cause of this condition is:immune insufficiency.Direct effects of antibodies include: (Select all that apply.)neutralization. agglutination. precipitation.When a patient asks the nurse what hypersensitivity is, how should the nurse respond? Hypersensitivity is best defined as:an excessive or inappropriate response of the immune system to a sensitizing antigen.When the maternal immune system becomes sensitized against antigens expressed by the fetus, what type of immune reaction occurs?AlloimmuneA patient presents with poison ivy on the extremities, face, and buttocks after an initial exposure 48 hours ago. This condition is an example of:delayed hypersensitivity.A 10-year-old male is stung by a bee while playing in the yard. He begins itching and develops pain, swelling, redness, and respiratory difficulties. He is suffering from:anaphylaxis.Which information would indicate more teaching is needed regarding hypersensitivity reactions? Type _______ hypersensitivity reactions involve an antibody response.IV30-year-old male is having difficulty breathing and has been spitting blood. He reports that he began experiencing this reaction after cleaning his pigeons' cages. Testing reveals he is suffering from allergic alveolitis. Which of the following is he experiencing?Arthus reactionA nurse recalls that an example of an immune-complex-mediated disease is:serum sickness.When a nurse cares for a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), the nurse remembers this disease is an example of:autoimmunity.A 40-year-old female is diagnosed with SLE. Which of the following findings would be considered a symptom of this disease?PhotosensitivityWhat is the chance that two siblings share both HLA haplotypes, making them a good match for an organ transplant from one to the other?25%When a nurse notices that a patient has type O blood, the nurse realizes that anti-_____ antibodies are present in the patient's body.A and BIn addition to matching ABO antigens, a blood transfusion must also be matched for:Rh antigen.15-year-old male suffers from severe hemorrhage following a motor vehicle accident. He is given a blood transfusion, but shortly afterward the red blood cells are destroyed by agglutination and lysis. Which of the following blood type transfusion type matches would cause this?A-ABA person is given an attenuated antigen as a vaccine. When the person asks what was given in the vaccine, how should the nurse respond? The antigen is:alive, but less infectious.A 5-year-old male presents with low-set ears, a fish-shaped mouth, and involuntary rapid muscular contraction. Laboratory testing reveals decreased calcium levels. Which of the following diagnosis is most likely?T-lymphocyte deficiency22 year old was recently diagnosed with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Which decreased lab finding would be expected to accompany this virus?CD4+ T-helperWhich of the following is a characteristic of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which causes AIDS?HIV is a retrovirus.30-year-old male was diagnosed with HIV. Which of the following treatments would be most effective?Antiretroviral therapy (ART)The nurse would correctly respond that the etiology of a congenital immune deficiency is due to a(n):genetic defect.An infant is experiencing hemolytic disease of the newborn. Which of the following would the nurse expect to find in the infant's history and physical?he baby is Rh positive.. Which symptoms are a result of a type II hypersensitivity?anemia Lymphopenian immunologist is discussing endotoxin production. Which information should the immunologist include? Endotoxins are produced by:gram-negative bacteria.A 5-year-old male becomes ill with a severe cough. Histologic examination reveals a bacterial infection, and further laboratory testing reveals cell membrane damage and decreased protein synthesis. Which of the following is the most likely cause of this illness?ExotoxinA 50-year-old female experiences decreased blood pressure, decreased oxygen delivery, cardiovascular shock, and subsequent death. A complication of endotoxic shock is suspected. Which of the following is the most likely cause?Gram-negative bacteriaAfter studying about viruses, which information indicates the student has a good understanding of viruses? Viruses:replicate their genetic material inside host cells.After studying about fungi, which information indicates a correct understanding of fungi? Fungi causing deep or systemic infections:are commonly opportunistic.Which information indicates a correct understanding of viral vaccines? Most viral vaccines contain:attenuated viruses.hich information indicates a good understanding of bacterial vaccines? Most bacterial vaccines contain:dead bacteria.What common symptom should be assessed in individuals with immunodeficiencyRecurrent infectionsWhen the immunologist says that pathogens possess infectivity, what is the immunologist explaining? Infectivity allows pathogens to:invade and multiply in the host.When the immunologist says that pathogens possess virulence, what does virulence mean?causes disease.