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Terms in this set (81)

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CRUDE MORTALITY:
- Crude mortality rate (also referred to as all-cause mortality) is the total number of deaths from all causes per number of persons in a population during a specified time period divided by the total number of persons in the population during that time period
- Crude mortality rates are influenced by the population's age composition—Using crude mortality rates in examining changes over time or making comparisons between subgroups in a population can often be misleading.

AGE-SPECIFIC MORTALITY:
- Age-specific mortality rate measures the total number of deaths from all causes among individuals in a specific age category.
- Allows comparisons of mortality risks for a particular age group across different subpopulations.
- Age-adjusted mortality rate is used to account for variation in age distribution when comparing crude mortality rates over time or across different segments or geographic locations in the population.
- Age adjustment is a statistical process that allows the comparison of mortality rates and health outcomes across communities with different age structures by removing the confounding caused by age.

CAUSE-SPECIFIC MORTALITY:
- Cause-specific mortality rate measures the total number of deaths from a specific cause or a specific diagnosis.
- The cause of death refers to the single, specific, underlying cause (disease or injury) that initiates the series of events leading to the death—all other reported causes are the non-underlying causes of death. The underlying cause of death is the one used in computing cause-specific mortality rate
- Misclassification and miscoding can affect the accuracy of reported cause-specific mortality rate.
- Odds ratio (OR) is the preferred measure of association between exposures and outcomes in case-control studies, but can also be used in cohort studies.
- For case-control studies, the OR is the ratio of the odds of cases being exposed to the odds of controls being exposed.
- For cohort studies, the OR is the ratio of the odds of developing the outcome in the exposed group to the odds of developing the outcome in the unexposed group.

CASE-CONTROLS:
- OR = 1 indicates that the odds of exposure among cases are the same as the odds of exposure among controls. The exposure is not associated with the disease or outcome.
- OR > 1 indicates that the odds of exposure among cases are greater than the odds of exposure among controls. The exposure might be a risk factor for the disease or outcome.
- OR < 1 indicates that the odds of exposure among cases are lower than the odds of exposure among controls. The exposure might be a protective factor against the disease or outcome.

COHORT STUDIES:
- OR = 1 suggests that the odds of an event is the same in those who are exposed and unexposed.
- OR > 1 suggests that the odds of an event is higher in the exposed group than in the unexposed group.
- OR < 1 suggests that odds of an event is lower in the exposed group than in the unexposed group.

INTERPRETING:
- Statistical significance of OR must be evaluated before any conclusions are made.
- If the CI for the estimated OR includes 1, this means there is no association between the exposure and outcome.
- If the CI for the estimated OR does not include 1, this means that there is an association between the exposure and outcome.
Direct:
- rating scale (RS)
- standard gamble (SG)
- time tradeoff (TTO)

Indirect:
- EQ-5D instruments
- SF-6D questionnaire

Rating Scale:
- line on a page with scaled markings (like a thermometer)

Standard Gamble:
- the respondent is asked to think about being in a chronic health state and then told that her or she could gamble on an intervention that could either cure the condition (probability = p) or die from it (probability = 1 - p)
- a base probability is given, and the respondent is asked whether he or she would have the intervention or live with the chronic condition
- this probability is varied until the respondent is indifferent
- the probability at this indifference point is the utility associated with the condition

Time Tradeoff:
- the respondent makes a choice about trading off years of life for better health for a shorter period of time
- the respondent is given the choice of living a full life (to time t) with a specific condition or living healthy for fewer years (to time x) without the condition
- the time of living healthy is varied until the respondent is indifferent between living in full health x years and living with the condition for t years
- the utility for the condition is x/t

EQ-5D Instruments:
- family of instruments to describe and value health that have been used in clinical trials, population studies, and real-world settings for over 30 years
- a formula is used to calculate a unique index value (utility) using standardized weights for the five domains

SF-6D Questionnaire:
- abbreviated version of SF-36
- the most widely used health-related quality of life evaluation tool by MCOs and Medicare for routine monitoring and assessment of patient care outcomes
- provides a means for using SF-36 in economic evaluation by using an algorithm to estimate a preference-based single index measure for health from this data (allows analysts to obtain QUALYs from the SF-36 for use in CUAs)