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72 terms

BIO102 Exam #2

quiz questions and answers
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The only process that can add new genes and therefore new variations to a species is...
mutation
which statement below most accurately describes a phylogenetic tree?
a phylogenetic tree is a branching diagram used to illustrate a scientist's hypothesis about how divergence took place among evolutionary lines
the sixth mass extinction event is likely being caused by....
human-induced events
two organisms live in the same geographical area, are very similar genetically, and can breed with each other successfully. which of the following statements is correct?
these organisms are members of the same species
which of the following populations would be most vulnerable to extinction?
small, endemic population
which of the following would explain the extinction of upwards 90% of species in existence over a short period of time?
mass extinction events
an excellent example of selective or artificial breeding by humans is...
the diversity of dog breeds in the world today
a single, small population that only exists in one place on the planet is considered
endemic
starting with the smallest level of ecological organization and moving towards the highest, the order should go organism, ....
population, community, ecosystem, biosphere
a ...... is defined as the living and nonliving elements around an organism
habitat
heavy rains and mudslides cause a river to change course, isolating two groups of lizards from one another. over a long period of time, .....
the groups will probably diverge genetically, and speciation may occur
the carrying capacity is ....
the maximum population size that a given environment can sustain
density-dependent factors
have a greater impact at higher population densities
which of the following is a typical k-selected species' adaption?
parental care of the young
when looking at the distribution of a population, we might find a uniform distribution when....
individuals are competing for an evenly distributed resource such as space
consider a population of fish in the ocean. which of the following would be a limiting factor for such a population?
dissolved oxygen levels
what describes the number of individuals in a population per unit area?
population density
which of the following is a step that costa rica took to safegaurd its biodiversity?
it opened national parks and created protected areas so that close to 25% of its land is protected or reserved
high population density can....
increase the incidence of disease transmission
which of the following gives the major factors that determine a population's growth rate?
growth rate, death rate, emigration, immigration
(t/f) the concept of "biosphere" refers to the fact that life has changed in response to the earth, but that earth has not changed in response to life.
false
the notion driving much of the current research on the origin of life assumes that...
life emerged out of the natural chemistry of early earth
catalysts ...... the ..... energy of a reaction
reduce, activation
every step of a biochemical pathway is controlled by a specific...
all of the above
exergonic reactions ..... run spontaneously and ...... energy
do, release
if the reaction A + B => AB is autocatalytic, what is the autocatalyst?
AB
autocatalysts, like living organisms, have a remarkable type of growth called
exponential
conditions on the early earth surface are thought to include ....... ultra violet light and ..... carbon dioxide than today.
higher, higher
living organisms exhibit an autocatalytic biochemical pathway called...
none of the above
which following statement MOST aptly summarizes the biological view of life?
living organisms are a unique form of chemistry
by 2.7 billion years ago, rocks formed that contained ....... indicating that well before that life existed that could .....
iron oxide, photosynthesize
if a cell is replicating exponentially, it starts as 1, becomes 2, and then 4, and then...
8
which of the following can increase species richness gloabally?
speciation
of the taxonomic levels below, two species that are in the same ....... are most closely related evolutionarily.
genus
which of the following can change global species diversity?
speciation and extinction
the greatest diversity (numbers of different species) of organisms can be found in ......
insects
global biodiversity exists in a number of patterns. the largest and most obvious of these is that biodiversity is .......
greatest at the equator and drops as you move farther north or south
paleontologists and ecologists agree that...
99% of all species that have ever existed are now extinct
the sixth mass extinction event...
is ongoing and has been caused by human disturbance
when a species declines in number, it also ....
occupies less area that it once did
a species of lizard has gone extinct. this could be due to any of the following reasons except...
increased genetic diversity within the species
european rabbits were introduced in australia and quickly spread, reproduced and because a terrible pest. they eat up to $600 million worth of food and pasture crops annually, and have damaged the populations of many native plants and the populations of animals that eat the plants. twice in the past 50 years, rabbit diseases have been introduced to try and control the population, with some success. this is a case where ....
an invasice species has reduced the genetic diversity of indigenous species
the wood thrush makes its nest in woodlands in the northern and eastern united states. as patches of woods become smaller, increasing numbers of wood thrush nests have eggs laid in them by the brown-headed cowbird. cowbirds live in open fields and are nest parasites; the female cowbird flies up to an unattended nest, quickly lays an egg in another bird's nest, and leaves the host parents to raise their "adopted" young. wood thrushes are decreasing in numbers because...
habitat fragmentation makes it easier for cowbird parasitism to occur
pharmaceuticals produced from wild species produce up to $150 billion in sales and save many lives each year. this is an example of...
ecosystem services
maria loves to be outdoors. she hikes everyday in the woods, near the home that she shares with five pets and that is surrounded by mountains. edward o. wilson would argue that this is evidence of...
biophilia
biodiversity enhances human food security because it...
is a potential source of new food items or new genetic varieties of existing foods
conservation biology is different from other fields of science discussed in the book because...
it is an applied and goal-oriented science, with implicit values and ethical standards
the endangered species act is often a center of controversy because...
landowners are concerned that federal officials will restrict the use of private land if threatened or c. endangered species are found on it
in captive breeding programs, organisms are bred with the intent to...
release them into the wild
CITES tries to prevent the extinction of species by...
asking countries to sop the importation of organisms or parts of organisms (like tiger bones) if they are endangered species
an umbrella species is best defined as...
a species that, if protected, will result in the protection of a large number of species that require the same habitat
how is community-based conservation different from more traditional approaches to conservation?
in community based conservation, local people are involved with protecting the habitat, allowing them to still gain benefit from its resources
biology offers two ways to understand biological diversity, .... which studies in the origins, diversification and classification of the diversity, and ...... which studies how this extensive diversity survives, coexists and is distributed across the earth.
evolution, ecology
"taxonomy" refers to the study of...
the classification of organisms
the distribution of biomes is closely related to the distribution of...
climates
carolus linnaeus has binomial system of classification .... charles darwin proposed his idea of evolution by natural selection...
before
the lion is the same ..... but a different ..... than the leopard
genus, species
the large predator most likely to go extinct in the 21st century is the
sumatran tiger
the correct binomial for the newly discovered species of indonesian frogfish is...
histiophryne psychedelica
most tigers that kill people ...... eat them
do not
when looking at a phylogenetic tree, the Y-axis (vertical axis) is ..... and the branch points are ....
time, speciation events
in constructing phylogenies, traditional classification ..... been an excellent guide
has
modern phylogenetic reconstruction has been greatly improved by new information about
gene sequences
for example, this new information (last q) has surprisingly revealed that ...... are more closely related to ..... that to ......
crocodiles, birds, lizards
the structure of a protein is determined by the .... of ....
sequence, amino acids
the genetic code is used by the cell to convert gene ...... into protein .....
sequences, sequnces
species are different because they each have unique genes, which are made of molecules of .... containing different information
DNA
the gene Osr2, when lacking in mice, causes the formation of extra teeth. this suggests that the gene, when functioning properly
suppresses tooth formation
the gene that results in a red glow in the transgenic Ruppy was taken from...
sea anemone
as a key ingredient in the recipe for life, and a kind of "natural capital," genes are considered...
information
genes differ in their rates of change. when used for phylogenetic reconstruction, genes that change fast are good for studying ........ related species, genes that change slowly are good for studying .... related species
closely, distantly
using DNA to create the Tree of Life confirmed the "three domain" view of the overall tree, where two of the three main branches are groups of.......
bacteria