Chapter 17 Classification of Organisms
Terms in this set (33)
Identify the main criterion that Linnaeus used to classify organisms.
Form and Structure
List the common levels of modern classification from General to specific.
Domain Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species
Explain what information a phylogenetic diagram displays.
It indicates how closely related a subset of taxa are thought to be. The greater the number of homologous features shared by two organisms, the more closely related the organisms are.
State the criterion used in cladistic analysis.
Describe how a Cladogram is made.
It's comparative so it includes an organism that is only distantly related to the other organisms (out-group) begin with it and gradually branch out from what makes them all the same to what makes them unique individually .
Discuss how proteins and chromosomes are used to classify organisms.
Karyotypes have the ability to determine evolutionary relationships through the stain patterns of the organism's bands of chromosomes.
Describe the evidence that prompted the invention of thee three-domain system of classification.
List the characteristics that distinguish between the domains Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya.
Describe the six-kingdom system of classification.
Identify problematic taxa in the six-kingdom system.
Explain why taxonomic systems continue to change.
Taxonomic systems continue to change because they are scientific models and new systems will result from future investigations into the millions of known and unknown species on Earth.
prokaryotes that are distinguished from other prokaryotes by differences in their genetics and in the makeup of their cell wall; members of the domain Archaea
a kingdom made up of prokaryotes
prokaryotes that usually have a cell wall and that usually reproduce by cell division
a system for giving each organism a two-word scientific name that consists of the genus name followed by the species name
the variety of organisms in a given area, the genetic variation within a population, the variety of species in a community, or the variety of communities in an ecosystem
a carbohydrate that forms part of the exoskeleton of arthropods and other organisms, such as insects, crustaceans, fungi and some algae
the group of organisms that includes an ancestor plus all of its descendants
a phylogenetic classification system that uses shared derived characters and ancestry as the sole criterion for grouping taxa
a diagram that is based on patterns of shared, derived traits and that shows evolutionary relationships between groups of organisms
a unique characteristic of a particular group of organisms
in a taxonomic system based on RNA analysis, one of the three broad groups that all living things fall into
all prokaryotes except members of the kingdom Archaeabacteria
a domain made us of all prokaryotes
devised a system of grouping organisms into hierarchical categories according to their form and structure
a protein-carbohydrate compound that makes the cell walls of bacteria rigid
a branching diagram that shows how organisms are related through evolution
evolutionary history of a species or taxonomic group
the analysis or ancestral relationships among taxa
a feature that evolved in the common ancestor of a group of related organisms
the science of describing, naming, and classifying organisms
any particular group within a taxonomic system