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When nine young black men in Scottsboro, Alabama, were charged on trumped-up rape charges in 1931, they were saved from the electric chair by a team of lawyers sent by
Among the first signs of economic distress in the United States in the mid-1920s was
slowdown in new construction and in automobile sales
The Ku Klux Klan reemerged in 1915 largely in response to the belief that
the nation needed to be defended against the threat to traditional values posed by blacks, immigrants, radicals, feminists, Catholics, and Jews.
The immigration laws of the 1920s, including the Johnson-Reid Act
marked the beginning of an era of strict limits on immigration.
The outpouring of African American literature and art in New York City in the 1920s was
During the 1920s, the influence of the "new woman"
was felt by all women, even those who believed in traditional gender roles
When Herbert Hoover moved into the White House in 1929, the U.S. economy was marked by
a huge disparity in wealth between rich and poor.
In his address before the NY Chamber of Commerce in 1925, President Calvin Coolidge argued
that government and business need to be strongly separated from one another
"The Klan's Fight for Americanism" (1926), Hiram W. Evans argued that non-Anglo immigrants were dangerous to the United States for all of the following reasons except:
They add to an increasing transnational cosmopolitan identity that erased America's distinctiveness.
President Wilson's most controversial involvement in Latin America occurred when he
intervened in Mexico's affairs.
A complex web of European military and diplomatic alliances determined the scope of World War I, but the event that triggered the war was
the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria by a Bosnian Serb terrorist.
President Wilson's initial reaction to the outbreak of war in Europe in 1914 was to
proclaim absolute neutruality
The Versailles treaty was a bitter disappointment to President Wilson's supporters, but his Fourteen Points were honored in the inclusion of
League of Nations
American women finally got the vote when
Congress passed the Nineteenth Amendment, which was subsequently ratified by the required two-thirds of the states
The Committee on Public Information was created by President Wilson to
stir up patriotism through posters, pamphlets, cartoons, and press releases
By late 1917, progressives and prohibitionists had successfully
lobbied Congress for passage of the Eighteenth Amendment
The Red scare of 1919 and 1920 was
a reaction to U.S. labor unrest, Russian bolshevism, and a flurry of terrorist attacks.
According to Stanley B. Norvell, in his 1919 letter to Victor Lawson, what would be the consequence of America's ongoing mistreatment of African Americans
America would lose international prestige.
The fundamental difference in the philosophies of Booker T. Washington and W. E. B. Du Bois was that Washington
focused on education and economic progress, while Du Bois emphasized civil rights and black leadership.
Woodrow Wilson's presidency was greatly affected by the fact that he was
a teetotaler and a moralist
Margaret Sanger promoted birth control because she
believed it would usefully alter social and political power relationships.
The efforts of Alice Paul and Carrie Chapman Catt were instrumental in
securing the passage of the Nineteenth Amendment, which granted women the vote.
The Progressive Era witnessed the rise of Jim Crow laws in the South that were designed to
legalize and expand racial segregation in public facilities
The "uprising of twenty thousand" in 1909 was a
A. strike by women garment-workers in New York City who were protesting low wages, dangerous working conditions, and management's refusal to recognize their union.
The new social gospel of the late nineteenth century
alled for the reform of both individuals and society.
he term muckrakers refers to Progressive Era journalists who
filled papers and periodicals with stories of corporate and political wrongdoing.
In his speech delivered on October 2, 1915, John D. Rockefeller Jr. compares a corporation to what?
a square table with 4 legs
When president R said, " the only thing we have to fear is fear itself," he was referring to
the paralyzing terror caused by the depression
Underlying the New Deal was the belief that
capitalism held the solution to the nation's economic crisis
guaranteed bank customers that the federal government would reimburse them for deposits if their bank failed
The Social Security Act of 1935 provided
old-age pensions, grants to states for dependent mothers and children, and unemployment insurance.
-reformer who worked to prohibit child labor and to improve conditions for female workers
-took over NCL in 1899
He was a philosopher who believed in "learning by doing" which formed the foundation of progressive education. He believed that the teachers' goal should be "education for life and that the workbench is just as important as the blackboard."
Robert La Follete
progressive leader/ gov. of Wisconsin gave power back to people, regulated utilities rates, instituted taxes on inheritance, first to tie state gov. & university together
25th president responsible for Spanish-American War, Philippine-American War, and the Annexation of Hawaii, imperialism. Is assassinated by an anarchist
killed president McKinley in 1901. He was an anarchist, one who believes in the absence of government.
26th president, known for: conservationism, trust-busting, Hepburn Act, safe food regulations, "Square Deal," Panama Canal, Great White Fleet, Nobel Peace Prize for negotiation of peace in Russo-Japanese War
Banker who buys out Carnegie Steel and renames it to U.S. Steel. Was a philanthropist in a way; he gave all the money needed for WWI and was payed back. Was one of the "Robber barons"
muckraker who shocked the nation when he published The Jungle, a novel that revealed gruesome details about the meat packing industry in Chicago. The book was fiction but based on the things Sinclair had seen.
went on a campaign for awareness of the environment; inspired creation of Yosemite National Park; became president of the Sierra Club, which was devoted to conservation
William Howard Taft
27th president of the U.S.; he angered progressives by moving cautiously toward reforms and by supporting the Payne-Aldrich Tariff; he lost Roosevelt's support and was defeated for a second term.
28th president of the United States, known for World War I leadership, created Federal Reserve, Federal Trade Commission, Clayton Antitrust Act, progressive income tax, lower tariffs, women's suffrage (reluctantly), Treaty of Versailles, sought 14 points post-war plan, League of Nations (but failed to win U.S. ratification), won Nobel Peace Prize
William "Big Bill" Haywood
Leader of the IWW ( Industrial Workers of the World ) whose goal was to organize all workers into one union to overthrow Capitalism
American leader of the movement to legalize birth control during the early 1900's. As a nurse in the poor sections of New York City, she had seen the suffering caused by unwanted pregnancy. Founded the first birth control clinic in the U.S. and the American Birth Control League, which later became Planned Parenthood.
head of the National Woman's party that campaigned for an equal rights amendment to the Constitution. She opposed legislation protecting women workers because such laws implied women's inferiority. Most condemned her way of thinking.
Carrie Chapman Catt
Spoke powerfully in favor of suffrage, worked as a school principal and a reporter ., became head of the National American Woman Suffrage, an inspiried speaker and abrilliant organizer. Devised a detailed battle plan for fighting the war of suffrage.
Booker T. Washington
Prominent black American, born into slavery, who believed that racism would end once blacks acquired useful labor skills and proved their economic value to society, was head of the Tuskegee Institute in 1881. His book "Up from Slavery."
WEB Du Bois
fought for African American rights. Helped to found Niagra Movement in 1905 to fight for and establish equal rights. This movement later led to the establishment of the NAACP
William Jennings Bryan
United States lawyer and politician who advocated free silver and prosecuted John Scopes (1925) for teaching evolution in a Tennessee high school (1860-1925)
Francisco 'Pancho' Villa
A popular leader during the Mexican Revolution. An outlaw in his youth, when the revolution started, he formed a cavalry army in the north of Mexico and fought for the rights of the landless in collaboration with Emiliano Zapata.
head of the Committee on Public Information 1917 which was allegedly formed to combat wartime rumors by providing authoritative info. It served as propaganda agency proclaiming the govn'ts version of reality and discrediting those who questioned that version.
David Lloyd George
He was the British representative at the Paris Peace Conference in 1919. He pushed for a revenge-based treaty at Versailles, hampering the 14 points.
French statesman who played a key role in negotiating the Treaty of Versailles (1841-1929)
Henry Cabot Lodge
Chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, he was a leader in the fight against participation in the League of Nations
became president when Harding died of pneumonia. He was known for practicing a rigid economy in money and words, and acquired the name "Silent Cal" for being so soft-spoken. He was a true republican and industrialist. Believed in the government supporting big business.
A Mitchell Palmer
Attorney General who rounded up many suspects who were thought to be un-American and socialistic; he helped to increase the Red Scare; he was nicknamed the "Fighting Quaker" until a bomb destroyed his home; he then had a nervous breakdown and became known as the "Quaking Fighter."
An outspoken radical who was deported after being arrested on charges of being an anarchist, socialist, or labour agitator.
1863-1947. American businessman, founder of Ford Motor Company, father of modern assembly lines, and inventor credited with 161 patents.
United States gangster who terrorized Chicago during Prohibition until arrested for tax evasion (1899-1947)
Many poor urban blacks turned to him. He was head of the Universal Negro Improvement Association and he urged black economic cooperation and founded a chain of UNIA grocery stores and other business
African American poet who described the rich culture of african American life using rhythms influenced by jazz music. He wrote of African American hope and defiance, as well as the culture of Harlem and also had a major impact on the Harlem Renaissance.
James Weldon Johnson
NAACP leader and Harlem Renaissance writer; he wrote poetry and, with his brother, the song "Lift Every Voice and Sing."
Zora Neal Hurston
1891-1960. American folklorist. Author of 1937 novel "Their Eyes Were Watching God". Associated with Harlem Renaissance
F. Scott Fitzgerald
Was part of both the jazz age and the lost generation. Wrote books encouraging the flapper culture, and books scorning wealthy people being self-centered.
United States anarchist (born in Italy) who with Bartolomeo Vanzetti was convicted of murder and in spite of world-wide protest was executed (1891-1927)
An Italian immigrant who peddled fish convicted of murder during a payroll robbery and sentenced to death. Police found him and partner in crime with pistols upon arrest
Roaring 20's author that wielded his pen more as a sword, attacking marriage, democracy, prohibition, puritanism, and the South.
He was the Democratic presidential candidate in the 1928 election. He was the first Catholic to be elected as a candidate.
Nine young black men between the ages of 13 to 19 were accused of of raping two white women by the names of Victoria Price and Ruby Bates. All of the young men were charged and convicted of rape by white juries, despite the weak and contradictory testimonies of the witnesses
Roosevelt, the President of the United States during the Depression and WWII. He instituted the New Deal. Served from 1933 to 1945, he was the only president in U.S. history to be elected to four terms
FDR's Wife and New Deal supporter. Was a great supporter of civil rights and opposed the Jim Crow laws. She also worked for birth control and better conditions for working women
A New York social worker who headed the Federal Emergency Relief Administration and Civil Works Administration. He helped grant over 3 billion dollars to the states wages for work projects, and granted thousands of jobs for jobless Americans. p778
Roosevelt's secretary of labor (1993-1945); the first woman to serve as a federal Cabinet officer, she had a great influence on many New Deal programs, most significantly the Social Security Act.
unflattering name given to Oklahomans and others from the rural Midwest, especially those who left the Dust Bowl looking for better lives during the 1930s
an American singer-songwriter, Guthrie traveled with migrant workers from Oklahoma to California and learned traditional folk and blues songs. Many of his songs are about his experiences in the Dust Bowl era during the Great Depression
NAACP, mixed..so he was able to get info from whites; made his top priority to stop lynching, never got anti lynching bill passed
As senator in 1932 of Washington preached his "Share Our Wealth" programs. It was a 100% tax on all annual incomes over $1 million and appropriation of all fortunes in excess of $5 million. With this money Long proposed to give every American family a comfortable income, etc
A democratic senator from New York State from 1927-1949, he was responsible for the passage of some of the most important legislation enacted through the New Deal. The National Labor Relations Act of 1935 was popularly known as the Wagner Act in honor of the senator. He also played a major role in the National Industrial Recovery Act of 1933 and the Wagner-Steagall Housing Act of 1937
Mary McLoed Bethune
african american educatior who helped minority students and helped organize the balck cabinet
John Maynard Keynes
British economist who argued that for a nation to recovery fully from a depression, the govt had to spend money to encourage investment and consumption
John L. Lewis
long-time labor leader who organized and led the first important unskilled workers labor union, called in to represent union during sit-down strike
Fascist dictator of Italy (1922-1943). He led Italy to conquer Ethiopia (1935), joined Germany in the Axis pact (1936), and allied Italy with Germany in World War II. He was overthrown in 1943 when the Allies invaded Italy.
This dictator was the leader of the Nazi Party. He believed that strong leadership was required to save Germanic society, which was at risk due to Jewish, socialist, democratic, and liberal forces.
Spanish General; organized the revolt in Morocco, which led to the Spanish Civil War. Leader of the Nationalists - right wing, supported by Hitler and Mussolini, won the Civil War after three years of fighting.
British statesman who as Prime Minister pursued a policy of appeasement toward fascist Germany (1869-1940)
Russian leader who succeeded Lenin as head of the Communist Party and created a totalitarian state by purging all opposition (1879-1953)
leader of the Allied forces in Europe during WW2--leader of troops in Africa and commander in DDay invasion-elected president-president during integration of Little Rock Central High School
A. Philip Randolph
America's leading black labor leader who called for a march on Washington D.C. to protest factories' refusals to hire African Americans, which eventually led to President Roosevelt issuing an order to end all discrimination in the defense industries.
Harry S. Truman
The 33rd U.S. president, who succeeded Franklin D. Roosevelt upon Roosevelt's death in April 1945. Truman, who led the country through the last few months of World War II, is best known for making the controversial decision to use two atomic bombs against Japan in August 1945. After the war, Truman was crucial in the implementation of the Marshall Plan, which greatly accelerated Western Europe's economic recovery.
Thomas E. Dewey
The Republican presidential nominee in 1944, Dewey was the popular governor of New York. Roosevelt won a sweeping victory in this election of 1944. Dewey also ran against Harry Truman in the 1948 presidential election. Dewey, arrogant and wooden, seemed certain to win the election, and the newspapers even printed, "DEWEY DEFEATS TRUMAN" on election night. However, the morning results showed that Truman swept the election, much to Dewey's embarrassment.
The movement in the late 1800s to increase democracy in America by curbing the power of the corporation. It fought to end corruption in government and business, and worked to bring equal rights of women and other groups that had been left behind during the industrial revolution.
Movement led by Washington Gladden - taught religion and human dignity would help the middle class over come problems of industrialization
Women's Trade Union League
a U.S. organization of both working class and more well-off women formed in 1903 to support the efforts of women to organize labor unions and to eliminate sweatshop conditions
A fire in New York's Triangle Shirtwaist Company in 1911 killed 146 people, mostly women. They died because the doors were locked and the windows were too high for them to get to the ground. Dramatized the poor working conditions and let to federal regulations to protect workers.
Muller v. Oregon
1908 - Supreme Court upheld Oregon state restrictions on the working hours of women as justified by the special state interest in protecting women's health
National Consumers' League
formed in the 1890's under the leadership of Florence Kelly, attempted to mobilize the power of women as consumers to force retailers and manufacturing to improve wages and working conditions.
Interstate Commerce Commission
a former independent federal agency that supervised and set rates for carriers that transported goods and people between states
Pure Food and Drug Act
Forbade the manufacture or sale of mislabeled or adulterated food or drugs, it gave the government broad powers to ensure the safety and efficacy of drugs in order to abolish the "patent" drug trade. Still in existence as the FDA.
"compulsory prostitution"; beginning in the late 19th century. Origins have been traced to labor movements as a way to describe low wages and intolerable conditions. Term applies to women in the prostitution business as having no other means of earning money.
1910, gave the interstate comerce commission the power to suspend new railroad rates, along with oversee telephone and cable companie; included communications
Ship canal cut across the isthmus of Panama by United States Army engineers; it opened in 1915. It greatly shortened the sea voyage between the east and west coasts of North America. The United States turned the canal over to Panama on Jan 1, 2000 (746)
Roosevelt's 1904 extension of the Monroe Doctrine, stating that the United States has the right to protect its economic interests in South And Central America by using military force
Term used to describe the efforts of the US to further its foreign policy through use of economic power by gaurenteeing loans to foreign countries
Also known as the "Bull Moose Party", this political party was formed by Theodore Roosevelt in an attempt to advance progressive ideas and unseat President William Howard Taft in the election of 1912. After Taft won the Republican Party's nomination, Roosevelt ran on the Progressive party ticket.
"The New Nationalism"
1816-23 followed the war of 1812. The scompe & authority of the Supreme Court were established. the Era of Good Feelings characterized the political successors of the Republican Party. The new nationalism led to the development of a new American culture.
Federal Trade Commission
an independent agency of the United States fedeal government that maintains fair and free competition
Clayton Antitrust Act
New antitrust legislation constructed to remedy deficiencies of the Sherman Antitrust Act, namely, it's effectiveness against labor unions
Federal Trade Commission
Established to preserve competition by preventing unfair business practices and investigates complaints against companies
a former international labor union and radical labor movement in the United States (Industrial Workers of the World)
National Women's Party
a women's organization founded in 1916 that fought for women's rights during the early 20th century in the United States, particularly for the right to vote on the same terms as men
Major speech on race-relations given by Booker T. Washington addressing black labor opportunities, and the peril of whites ignoring black injustice
Plessy v. Ferguson
a 1896 Supreme Court decision which legalized state ordered segregation so long as the facilities for blacks and whites were equal
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, founded in 1909 to abolish segregation and discrimination, to oppose racism and to gain civil rights for African Americans, got Supreme Court to declare grandfather clause unconstitutional
American Expeditionary Force
About 2 million Americans went to France as members of this under General John J. Pershing. Included the regular army, the National Guard, and the new larger force of volunteers and draftees and they served as individuals
March 1917. Sent from German Foreign Secretary, addressed to German minister in Mexico City. Mexico should attack the US if US goes to war with Germany (needed that advantage due to Mexico's promixity to the US). In return, Germany would give back Tex, NM, Arizona etc to Mexico.
Selective Service Act
Law passed by Congress in 1917 that required all men from ages 21 to 30 to register for the military draft
National American Woman Suffrage Association; founded in 1890 to help women win the right to vote
Committee on Public Information
Organization also known as the Creel Commision which was responsible for rallying American's around the war effort through propaganda
Made it a crime to criticize the government or government officials. Opponents claimed that it violated citizens' rights to freedom of speech and freedom of the press, gauranteed by the First Amednment.
Woodrow Wilson's peace plan to end WWI. It calls for free trade; an end to secret pacts between nations; freedom of the seas; arms reduction; and the creation of a world organization - called the League of Nations
League of Nations
an international organization formed in 1920 to promote cooperation and peace among nations
The compromise after WW1, settled land and freedom disputes. Germany had to take full blame for the war in order for the treaty to pass, among other things. The US Senate rejected it.
Seattle General Strike of 1919
-35,000 shipyard workers go on strike with other unions creating a sympathy strike demanding better wages. Completely stops Seattle for a week.
- The Nation's first major general strike. Workers in all industries took part
Boston Police Strike of 1919
the Police Force in Boston, MA went on a strike, and in fear of communism, President Coolidge (then governor at the time) fired them and called in the militia to be the police force
period in US when there was a suspicion of communism and fear of widespread infultration of communists in the US gvnt
movement of over 300,000 African American from the rural south into Northern cities between 1914 and 1920
a government scandal involving a former United States Navy oil reserve in Wyoming that was secretly leased to a private oil company in 1921
Agreement signed in 1928 in which nations agreed not to pose the threat of war against one another
when companies provide incentives to build better relationships with employees; health insurance, safety standards, buy stock in the company
Term used to describe career-oriented women in western Europe and the United States in the 1920s; they sought increased social and political rights.
U.S. Act of Congress providing federal funding for maternity and child care, a response to the lack of adequate medical care for women and children
Equal Rights Amendment
constitutional amendment passed by Congress but never ratified that would have banned discrimination on the basis of gender
League of Women Voters
League formed in 1920 advocating for women's rights, among them the right for women to serve on juries and equal pay laws
Universal Negro Improvement Association
(UNIA) Association founded by Marcus Gravey in 1914 to foster African American economic independence and establish an independent black homeland in Africa.
a flowering of African American culture in the 1920s; instilled interest in African American culture and pride in being an African American.
Stands for Ku Klux Klan and started right after the Civil War in 1866. The Southern establishment took charge by passing discriminatory laws known as the black codes. Gives whites almost unlimited power. They masked themselves and burned black churches, schools, and terrorized black people. They are anti-black and anti-Semitic.
a highly publicized trial in 1925 when John Thomas Scopes violated a Tennessee state law by teaching evolution in high school
charged a high tax for imports thereby leading to less trade between America and foreign countries along with some economic retaliation
Reconstruction Finance Corporation
Congress set up $2 billion. It made loans to major economic institutions such as banks, insurance companies and railroads.
Group of WWI vets. that marched to D.C. in 1932 to demand the immediate payment of their goverment war bonuses in cash
the special session of Congress that Roosevelt called to launch his New Deal programs. The special session lasted about three months: 100 days.
Emergency Banking Act
A government legislation passed during the depression that dealt with the bank problem. The act allowed a plan which would close down insolvent banks and reorganize and reopen those banks strong enough to survive.
Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation: A federal guarantee of savings bank deposits initially of up to $2500, raised to $5000 in 1934, and frequently thereafter; continues today with a limit of $100,000
The informal radio conversations Roosevelt had with the people to keep spirits up. It was a means of communicating with the people on how he would take on the depression.
Federal Emergency Relief Administration
Government agency that was a part of the New Deal. It allocated $500 million to relieve cities and states. To help with the unemployment problem.
Civil Works Administration
(CWA) hired workers to build or improve airports, 500k miles of road, 40k school buildings and 3500 playgrounds and parks. Cost was huge--1 billion in 5 months => helped people get through the winter
Tenesse Valley Authority
new deal project that built dams to control flooding and increase electrical power
Agricultural Adjustment Act
Recovery: (AAA); May 12, 1933; restricted crop production to reduce crop surplus; goal was to reduce surplus to raise value of crops; farmers paid subsidies by federal government; declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court in US vs Butler on January 6, 1936
National Industrial Recovery Act
A New Deal legislation that focused on the employment of the unemployed and the regulation of unfair business ethics. The NIRA pumped cash into the economy to stimulate the job market and created codes that businesses were to follow to maintain the ideal of fair competition and created the NRA.
this section of NIRA stated that labor unions could exist and was the first time the gov't supported labor unions
asted eighty-three days, triggered by sailors and a four-day general strike in San Francisco, and led to the unionization of all of the West Coast ports of the United States
Electric Auto-lite strike
e Toledo Auto-Lite strike was a strike by a federal labor union of the American Federation of Labor (AFL) against the Electric Auto-Lite company of Toledo, Ohio, from April 12 to June 3, 1934.
Textile Strike of 1934
This was not successful because mill owners threatened workers, hired scabs, and then did not abide by the agreement
Works Progress Administration WPA
New Deal program that employed men and women to build hospitals, schools, parks, and airports; employed artists, writers, and musicians as well
1935; established National Labor Relations Board; protected the rights of most workers in the private sector to organize labor unions, to engage in collective bargaining, and to take part in strikes and other forms of concerted activity in support of their demands.
American Federation of Labor. A union of skilled workers from one or more trades which focused on collective bargaining (negotiation between labor and management) to reach written agreements on wages hours and working conditions. The AFL used strikes as a major tactic to win higher wages and shorter work weeks.
Congress of Industrial Organization
A federation of labor union for all unskilled workers. It provided a national labor union for unskilled workers, unlike the AFL, which limited itself to skilled workers.
work stopage in which workers refuse to leave a factory, Dec 30 1936-Feb 11 1937, considered the most important strike in American labor history- a battlefield in Flint that changed the face of America. changed the United Automobile Workers (UAW) from a collection of isolated locals on the fringes of the industry into a major union and led to the unionization of the domestic United States automobile industry.
Sit Down Strike
Work stoppage in which workers shut down all machines and refuse to leave a factory until their demands are met.
was the French political alliance that allied the Communists, the Socialists, and the Radicals together.
Fair Labor Standards Act
A government legislation that dealt with wages and child labor. It established a minimum wage and prohibited child labor in harsh and dangerous conditions.
the name of the American B-29 bomber, piloted by Col. Paul Tibbets, Jr., that dropped the atomic bomb on Hiroshima, Japan, on Aug. 6, 1945.
Hiroshima & Nagasaki
nuclear attacks during World War II against the Empire of Japan by the United States of America at the order of U.S. President Harry S. Truman
Good Neighbor Policy
Franklin D. Roosevelt policy in which the U.S. pledged that the U.S. would no longer intervene in the internal affairs of Latin American countries. This reversed Teddy Roosevelt's Big Stick Policy.
Neutrality Act of 1937
allow trade but prevent foreign entanglements by requiring warring nations to pay cash for non-military goods, and trasnport them in their ships, "cash-and-carry"
Rape of Nanking
infamous genocidal war crime committed by japanese military in Nanjing. started in 1937 and lasted a few weeks. japanese army raped, stole and killed prisoners of war and civilians
Spanish Civil War
civil war in Spain in which General Franco succeeded in overthrowing the republican government
Battle of Britain
s the name given to the World War II air campaign waged by the German Air Force (Luftwaffe) against the United Kingdom during the summer and autumn of 1940
allowed sales or loans of war materials to any country whose defense the president deems vital to the defense of the U.S
1941-Pledge signed by US president FDR and British prime minister Winston Churchill not to acquire new territory as a result of WWII amd to work for peace after the war
Signed between the Axis powers in 1940 (Italy, Germany and Japan) where they pledged to help the others in the event of an attack by the US
Japanese Internment Camps
The forcible relocation of approximately 110,000 Japanese Americans to housing facilities called "War Relocation Camps", in the wake of Imperial Japan's attack on Pearl Harbor.
Revealed unethical profiteering by Americans in muntion companies durning World War One, A 1944 Supreme Court decision that upheld as constitutional the internment of more than 100,000 Americans of Japanese descent in encampments during World War II.
Battle of Midway
U.S. naval victory over the Japanese fleet in June 1942, in which the Japanese lost four of their best aircraft carriers. It marked a turning point in World War II.
Double V Campaign
The World War II-era effort of black Americans to gain "a Victory over racism at home as well as Victory abroad."
Fair Employment Practices
State and local laws governing equal employment opportunity that are often more comprehensive than federal laws and apply to small employers
Congress of Racial Equality
CORE was a civil rights organization. They were famous for freedom rides which drew attention to Southern barbarity, leading to the passing of civil rights legislation.
GI Bill of rights
Also known as Servicemen's Readjustment Act of 1944 gave money to veternas to study in colleges, universities, gave medical treatment, loans to buy a house or farm or start a new business
June 6, 1944 - Led by Eisenhower, over a million troops (the largest invasion force in history) stormed the beaches at Normandy and began the process of re-taking France. The turning point of World War II.
Battle of the Bulge
December, 1944-January, 1945 - After recapturing France, the Allied advance became stalled along the German border. In the winter of 1944, Germany staged a massive counterattack in Belgium and Luxembourg which pushed a 30 mile "bulge" into the Allied lines. The Allies stopped the German advance and threw them back across the Rhine with heavy losses.
FDR, Churchill and Stalin met at Yalta. Russia agreed to declare war on Japan after the surrender of Germany and in return FDR and Churchill promised the USSR concession in Manchuria and the territories that it had lost in the Russo-Japanese War
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