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direct democracy

A form of government in which citizens rule directly and not through representatives


form of government in which the leader has absolute power and authority


A government ruled by a king or queen


a member of a rich and powerful family


A city with its own traditions and its own government and laws; both a city and a separate independent state


a central area in Greek cities used both as a marketplace and as a meeting place


a government in which citizens rule through elected representatives


structures that carried water over long distances


government districts similar to states


a formal split within a religious organization; any division or separation of a group or organization into hostile factions


a political system governed by a few people


Greek philosopher; socratic method--questioning; sentenced to death for corrupting Athens youth


one of the greatest of the ancient Athenian philosophers

code of Justinian

Collection of laws and legal intepretaions developed under the emperor.


"I forbid"


In ancient Rome, a member of the privileged upper class


one of two officials who led the government in the ancient Roman republic

romulus and remus

Legendary founders of Rome


First emperor of Rome

Alexander the Great

king of Mcedonia who conquered Geece, Persia, Egypt, and the Indus Valley; his conquests spread Greek culture throughout parts of 3 continents

Julius Caesar

Made dictator for life in 45 BCE, after conquering Gaul, assinated in 44 BCE by the Senate because they were afraid of his power.


father of medicine.


Greek city-state that was ruled by an oligarchy, focused on military, used slaves for agriculture, discouraged the arts


Roman Emperor (4th century A.D.) who promoted tolerance to all religions in the Roman Empire and legalized Christianity

Byzantine Empire

The eastern Roman empire


capital of the Byzantine Empire


Powerful city in Ancient Greece that was a leader in arts, sciences, philosophy, democracy and architecture.

Greek Fire

Byzantine weapon consisting of mixture of chemicals that ignited when exposed to water; utilized to drive back the Arab fleets that attacked Constantinople.

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