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______ refers to one or more persons who have formal control over an organization, or the act or process of operating the organization.
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Terms in this set (61)
Because they represent a smaller proportion of the correctional population, programming for women and girls has traditionally been:geared toward men and boysThe trajectory of employment for female correctional officers has been ______ than the growth in women and girls under correctional supervision.slowerThe single largest area of growth for women and girls in terms of correctional populations has been in the area of:probationAccording to the authors, female institutions, because of economies of scale, require:almost the same number of administrative staff as larger male institutionsFeminists have been instrumental in pushing for:better programming for supervised women and girlsSome estimates suggest that as many as ______ of women in custody have experienced sexual abuse prior to incarceration.60%Quid pro quo sexual harassment can be defined as:sexual harassment that involves an exchange of something for something else, as in the case of sexual favorsWhich of the following statements best captures the relationship between gender and correctional work in terms of the underlying ideology that guides correctional officer interaction with inmates?both male and female officers value the service orientation over a security orientation in their workWhich of the following types of crimes has brought more female offenders into the system?drug offensesBoth black and white women in the United States in the 19th century tended to be incarcerated for property crimes, particularlylarcenyThe _____ has led to the disproportionate representation of minority groups in correctional organizational organizations.war on drugsA term that refers to the differences between groups of people based on culture is:ethnicityAs far as incarceration rates, which group is underrepresented in state correctional populations in comparison to their representation in the general population?Asian AmericansA term that refers to the skin color and features of a group of people is:raceSince the passing of the Civil Rights Act of 1964:hiring of minorities and women have increased.Disparityis the unequal treatment of one group by the criminal justice system, compared with the treatment accorded other groups.Ethnic groups:will often have a distinct language, as well as distinct values, religion, history, and traditions.Racism that is practiced by many, if not most institutional members, in criminal justice and other organizations is known as:institutional racismAfter the changing of federal law in 2010, sentences for crack versus powder cocaine was reduced from 100 to 1 to18 to 1The internment of 120,000 Japanese Americans into concentration camps occurred during:WWIIThe juvenile justice system falls under ______ law.civilWhich of the following is an example of a status offense?skipping schoolParens Patriae gave the state the right to intercede on behalf of:children and parentsA ______ involves a juvenile judge deciding after a "full inquiry" that the juvenile should be waived.judicial waiverIn which case did the Court hold that juveniles can be held in pretrial preventive detention when charged with a delinquent act?Schall v. MartinEvery action that is primarily oriented toward justice by repairing the harm that has been caused by a criminal act is referred to asrestorative justiceIn which case did the Court hold that juveniles are afforded basic constitutional rights when there is a possibility of confinement?In re GaultChristopher regularly disobeys his parents and was recently caught smoking and drinking by a police officer. Christopher has committed which of the following offenses?status offenseLife-course persistence (LCP) offenders begin offendingprior to pubertyThe minimum level age of criminal responsibility was define in early English common law as7Which of the following cases was the first to successfully challenge the use of the death penalty?Furman v. GeorgiaIn ______, the Supreme Court upheld the constitutionality of the use of a bifurcated hearing.Gregg v. GeorgiaThe assumption that rather than deterring homicides, they actually increase following executions is referred to as thebrutalizing effectWhat percentage of female offenders has been executed in the United States?2%If a person is sentenced to death, what is the average time lapse between conviction and execution according to 2010 data?14½ yearsIf an informant serving time or awaiting sentencing conjures up stories to support a prosecutor's theory in exchange for some consideration, it is consideredsnitch testimonyA subaverage level of intellectual functioning is defined as an IQ of70 or belowIn ______, the Supreme Court ruled that in a prison environment, an inmate be involuntarily medicated if the inmate is dangerous to himself or others and the treatment is in the inmate's medical interest.Washington v. Harper_____ typically involves the withholding of exculpatory evidence.prosecutorial misconductIn _____, the Court overruled itself with regard to executing the mentally disabled.Atkins v. VirginiaPunitive sentiments have led to an increase in the use of ______.all forms of correctionsHigh turnover is evident among correctional personnel because:training and pay are insufficientWhat developed nation most closely approximates the United States in terms of its incarceration rate?RussiaWhich of the following correctional population has quadrupled between the 1980s and 2017?jailWhen looking at our history in corrections, which often cited truism of 20th century philosopher is often used?those who do not know their history are likely to repeat itAs we look toward the future, one concern that should preoccupy those concerned about correctional practice is:professionalismDeclines in the numbers of persons in prisons and jails and community corrections were generally at the _____ level.stateWhich of the following states experienced a discernible trend in declines of incarceration rates over the last decade?New JerseyThe United States has an incarceration rate ______ greater than Japan's incarceration rate.14 times_____ is the key to moving correctional institutions and programs into the 21st century.technologyHow much more often does China use the death penalty over the US23%