Terms in this set (93)
T/F within the 14 principles you should Focus on mass inspection instead of preventionfalse, •Focus on prevention instead of mass inspectionT/F the individual is key within the 14 principlestrueT/F Rely on training those doing the job to do it correctly instead of catching their errorstruethe 14 principles state that you should not Eliminate quotas and goals that drive the wrong behaviorfalse, you should Eliminate quotas and goals that drive the wrong behaviordefine Cost of conformance - cost of preventionHow much do the activities that prevent problems cost?Define Cost of conformance - cost of appraisal•how much does it cost to determine the level of conformance to quality standards?T/F training employees, quality awareness programs, planning and quality team an exampe of cost of preventiontrueT/F inspection, checking, auditing, surveying, inquiries, etc is an example of cost of appraisaltrueDefine Cost of conformance - Cost of internal failure- cost of correcting products or services which do not meet quality standards, prior to delivery to the customerDefine Cost of conformance - Cost of external failure- correcting products or services after delivery to the customerT/f scrap or rework is an example of cost of internal failuretrueT/F warranty costs, installation of field retrofits, customer invoice errors/adjustments, and unplanned field service costs are examples of cost of external failuretrueUnder total quality management (TQM) what are some examples of •Customer satisfaction§Conformance §Value §Fitness for use §Support §Psychological impressionsUnder total quality management (TQM) what are some examples of Employee involvement§Cultural change §TeamsUnder total quality management (TQM) what are some examples of Continuous improvement§Kaizen §Problem-solving tools §Plan-Do-Study-ActWhat is Statistical Process Control (SPC)-an alternative to traditional inspection•Quality control seeksquality of conformance to standardsT/F SPC is a tool used to help in this process: - Statistical evaluation of the output of a process - Helps decide if a process is "in control" or if corrective action is needed E.g., Control chartstrueAre the variations random? is an axample ofProcess controlWhat are the Two basic questions: concerning variability1. Are the variations random? 2. Given a stable process, is the inherent variability of the process within a range that conforms to performance criteriaGiven a stable process, is the inherent variability of the process within a range that conforms to performance criteria is an example ofProcess capabilityT/F SPC Use Statistics to Separate Variation - Sampling Distribution -Central Limit TheoremtrueWithin the --- Regardless of distribution, distribution of sample means tends to be normalCentral Limit TheoremMean of samples equals --mean of populationwhat is A time ordered plot of representative sample statistics obtained from an ongoing process (e.g. sample means), used to distinguish between random and nonrandom variabilityControl Chartdefine the range of acceptable variationUpper (UCL) and lower (LCL) control limitsT/F within control charts for variables, Variables generate data that are never measuredfalsewithin control charts for variables what is used to monitor the central tendency of a process.Mean control charts - X bar chartswithin control charts for variables what is Used to monitor the process dispersionRange control charts - R chartsWithin variable control charts, what measures if the process is generating output consistent with the target valueX chartWithin variable control charts, what measures the variability of the processR - chartWithin Attribute control charts, what measures the number of defects when more than one defect can be counted in a product / servicec- chartWithin variable control charts, what measures the proportion of defective services or products generated by the process (binary)p - chartInterpreting Patterns in Control Charts, is this process in control - No points are outside the control limits - the traditional and most popular SPC chart guideline,yesInterpreting Patterns in Control Charts, is this process in control - The number of points above and below the center line are not at all the same,no, The number of points above and below the center line needs to be about the same,Interpreting Patterns in Control Charts, is this process in control - The points seem to fall randomly above and below the center lineyesInterpreting Patterns in Control Charts, is this process in control - Most points, but not all, are near the center line, and only a few are close to the control limits.yeswhat is The ability of the process to meet the design specification for a service or productProcess CapabilityIn Process Capability, what is A target for design specificationsNominal ValueIn Process Capability, what is An allowance above or below the nominal valueToleranceWithin Process Capability, When Cp > 1, it indicatesgood capabilityT/F within process capability, The value of Cp does not depend on the mean of the processtrueProcess Capability ratio, Cp -process is capable if it has a process distribution whose extreme values fall within the upper & lower product/service specs (measure of 'fit'; uses >1.33 as critical valueProcess Capability index, Cpk -process is capable when ratio (above) is greater than the critical value & the process distribution is centered on the nominal value of the design specs (measure of location; greater than 1)What are 5 examples of Improving Process Capability through Design for Processing• Simplify • Standardize • Mistake-proof (poka-yoke) • Upgrade equipment • AutomateT/F Quality is customer defined and needs to be measured throughout the entire operations processtrueLean systems have three basic elements, what are they1. Demand driven 2. Focused on waste reduction 3. Has a culture dedicated to excellence and continuous improvementT/F A flexible system of operation that uses considerably less resources than a traditional system - generally leads to lower cost, improved quality, and greater productivitytruewithin JIT Philosophy, The Ideal is Synchronization and Efficiency, which meansJust the right part in the right quantity at the right time in the right place, at minimum costexpand on Expose Sources of Waste (Jidoka)Problem visibility, fast feedback and correction Management by sightexpand on Continuous Improvement (Kaizen)Buffer reduction and employee involvementManagement by stressin the River Analogy of Lean/JIT: Inventory is a Measurement ofSuccessWhat are the Seven sources of waste in lean systems:1. Inventory 2. Overproduction 3. Waiting time 4. Unnecessary transporting 5. Processing waste 6. Inefficient work methods 7. Product defectsLean: Ultimate Goal• The ultimate goal = A balanced system, what does this meanOne that achieves a smooth, rapid flow of materials through the system to match supply to customer demandLean: Building Blocks , what are they (4)1 Product design 2 Process design 3 Personnel/organizational elements 4 Manufacturing planning and controlFour elements of product design important for lean systems: what are they1. Standard parts 2. Modular design 3. Highly capable systems with quality built in 4. Concurrent engineering8 aspects of process design that are important for lean systems:1. Small lot sizes 2. Setup time reduction 3. Manufacturing cells 4. Quality improvement 5. Production flexibility 6. A balanced system 7. Little inventory storage 8. Fail-safe methodsSelection, Cross-functional training Flexible work rules Involvement, Empowerment Employment security are all examples ofWorkforce ManagementSelection by quality, capability Close communication Partnership Long term contracts are all examles ofSupplier Managementwhthin the 5 S's or Kaizen what is Seiri- separate necessary items from unnecessary items• eliminate unnecessary items (clear up space)whthin the 5 S's or Kaizen what is Seiton- to neatly arrange and identify things • organize itemswhthin the 5 S's or Kaizen what is Seiso- always clean up & maintain tidiness • cleaningwhthin the 5 S's or Kaizen what is Seiketsu- to constantly maintain the 3S above• standardizewhthin the 5 S's or Kaizen what is Shitsuke- workers habitually conform to rules• training and discipline (i.e., visual control)T/F Within Visual control- every worker must never share a strong consciousness to eliminate hidden waste, so problems must be visibleFalse every worker MUST share a strong consciousness to eliminate hidden waste, so problems must be visibleT/F Prevention Saves Even More!trueSeven elements of manufacturing planning and control (MPC) are particularly important for lean system:1. Level loading 2. Pull systems 3. Visual systems 4. Limited work-in-process (WIP) 5. Close vendor relationships 6. Reduced transaction processing 7. Preventive maintenance and housekeepingwithin MPC: Visual Systems, what is KanbanCard or other device that communicates demand for work or materials from the preceding station • Kanban is the Japanese word meaning "signal" or "visible record"T/F Paperless production control system / Authority to pull, or produce, comes from a downstream process are examples of KanbantrueIn MPC: Communication, Communication moves --- through the system from station to stationbackwardIn MPC: Communication, Each workstation (customer) communicates its need for more work to the preceding workstation (supplier) What does this assureAssures that supply equals demandIn MPC: Communication, Work moves "just in time" for the next operation What does this assureFlow of work is coordinated• Accumulation of excessive inventories is avoidedWhere is Work is pushed to the next station as it is completedin a Push systemin what system would a workstation pull output from the preceding workstation as it is neededPull systemIn a ----------- Output of the final operation is pulled by customer demand or the master schedulePull system---------- are not appropriate for all operations• Large variations in volume, product mix, or product design will undermine the systemPull systems4 Obstacles to Conversion1. Management may not be fully committed or willing to devote the necessary resources to conversion 2 Workers/management may not be cooperative 3 It can be difficult to change the organizational culture to one consistent with the lean philosophy 4 Suppliers may resistJIT/Lean is fundamentally about the -----elimination of waste (7 zeros)Lean systems will only be effective if supporting goals and product/process/control strategies support thethree basic elements of lean systemsRule 1:All work shall be highly specified as to content, sequence, timing, and outcome.Rule 2:Every customer-supplier connection must be direct, and there must be an unambiguous yes-or-no way to send requests and receive responses.Rule 3:The pathway for every product and service must be simple and direct.Rule 4:Any improvement must be made in accordance with the scientific method, under the guidance of a teacher, at the lowest possible level within the organization.