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Chapter 28 Cold War Conflict and Consensus
Terms in this set (58)
Tehran Conference (Nov. 1943)
Wartime conference in which the Big Three (Churchill, Roosevelt, Stalin) decided that GB and the USA would invade the continent through France and then meet with Soviets in Germany, which meant that the Soviet Union would liberate eastern Europe and the other two western Europe; agreed to a partition of Germany at the conclusion of the war
Yalta Conference (Feb 1945)
Approved Declaration of a Liberated Europe (Soviets did not follow); approved establishment of UN; Soviets promised to help Americans against Japan; Germany would be divided up into 4 occupation zones
Potsdam Conference (July 1945)
At this conference, the differences over elections in Soviet-occupied Europe surged to the fore. Roosevelt died and was succeeded by president Harry Truman, who demanded immediate free elections throughout central and Eastern Europe. Stalin refused. While fighting Germany, the allies could maintain an alliance of necessity here and as the Cold War came to an end, long standing hostility between east and west reemerged.
Big Three: Churchill, FDR, Stalin
They were leaders who were determined to crush Germany. Their decisions had momentous implications for the Cold War.
"iron curtain" (Mar. 1946 speech)
In March 1946 former British prime minister Churchill ominously informed an american audience that an "iron curtain" had fallen across the continent, dividing Europe into two agnostic camps.
Truman Doctrine (March 1947)
America's policy geared to containing communism to those countries already under Soviet control. The United States responded with this to the USSR who was determined to export communism by subversion. The policy was first advocated by US diplomat George Kennan in 1946. The U.S. would use diplomatic, economic, and even military means to resist the expansion of communism.
President Truman promised the U.S. would use diplomatic, economic, and even military means to resist the expansion of communism anywhere on the globe. For example, Truman asked congress to provide military aid to anti communist forces in the Greek civil war and counter the threat of soviet expansion in turkey.
Marshall Plan (June 1947)
American plan for providing economic aid to Western Europe to help it rebuild. The U.S. Secretary of State George C. Marshall offered it, and it was one of the most successful foreign aid programs in history. When it ended in 1951, the U.S. had given about $13 billion in aid to fifteen Western European nations.
Berlin blockade & Berlin airlift (1948)
Growing ties among Britain, France, Belgium, and the Netherlands convinced Stalin that a Western bloc was forming against the Soviet Union. In response, Stalin blocked all traffic through the Soviet zone of Germany to Berlin in an attempt to win concessions and perhaps reunify the city under Soviet control. The Western Allies coordinated around-the-clock flights of hundreds of planes over the Soviet roadblocks, supplying provisions to West Berliners and thwarting Soviet efforts to swallow up the Western half of the city. After 324 days the airlift succeeded, and the Soviets reopened the roads.
The North Atlantic Treaty Organization, an anti-Soviet military alliance of Western governments. With U.S. backing, West Germany joined in 1955 and was allowed to rebuild its military to join in defense of Western Europe against possible Soviet attack.
Warsaw Pact (1955)
A military alliance among the U.S.S.R. and its Communist satellites. In both political and military terms, most of Europe was divided into two hostile blocs.
The postwar reversal of Europe's overseas expansion caused by the rising demand of the colonized peoples themselves, the declining power of European nations, and the freedoms promised by U.S. and Soviet ideals. In just two decades, some one hundred new nations in Africa, Asia, and the Middle East joined the global community. In some cases, decolonization proceeded relatively smoothly, with an orderly transition and little violence. In others, the European powers were determined to preserve colonial rule-long source of profit and national pride- and colonized peoples won independence only after long and bloody struggles.
A post-colonial system that perpetuates Western economic exploitation in former colonial territories. It undermined the promise of political independence, thereby extending to Africa (and much of Asia) the kind of economic subordination that the United States had imposed on Latin America in the nineteenth century.
Center-right political parties that rose to power in western Europe after the Second World War. They provided fresh leadership as they pushed for social change and economic reform. In Italy, the Christian Democrats were the leading party in the first postwar elections in 1946 and in early 1948 they won an absolute majority in the parliament in a landslide victory.
In Britain, the social-democratic Labour Party took power after the war and ambitiously established a "cradle-to-grave" welfare state. Many British industries were nationalized, including banks, iron and steel industries, and utilities and public transportation networks. The government gave the citizens free medical services and hospital care, generous retirement pensions, and unemployment benefits, all subsidized by progressive taxation that pegged tax payments to income levels, with the wealthy paying significantly more than those below them.
The Arab-led Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries; Christian Democratic governments in West Germany, Italy, Belgium, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg accepted the French idea and founded the European Coal and Steel Community in 1951. The founding states quickly attained their immediate economic goal- a single, transnational market for steel and coal without national tariffs or quota.
oil shocks (1970s)
OPEC declared an embargo on oil shipments to the United States, Israel's ally, and simultaneously raised prices. Within a year, crude oil prices quadrupled. Western nations realized that the rapid price increase was economically destructive, but together they did nothing. Thus governments, industry, and individuals dealt piecemeal with the so-called oil shock- a "shock" that turned out to be an earthquake.
The progressive relaxation of Cold War tensions that emerged in the early 1970's. Cold War hostilities continued in the developing world, direct diplomatic relations between the United States and the Soviet Union grew less strained. The superpowers agreed to limit the testing and proliferation of nuclear weapons and in 1975 mounted a joint U.S.- U.S.S.R. space mission.
Final Act of Helsinki Conference (1975)
The move toward detente reached a high point when the U.S., Canada, the Soviet Union, and all European nations (except Albania and Andorra) met in Helsinki to sign the final act of the conference on security and cooperation in Europe in 1975. The 35 participating nations agreed that Europe's existing political frontiers could not be changed by force. They also accepted numerous provisions guaranteeing the civil rights and political freedoms of their citizens. The agreement was effective in diminishing Cold War conflict.
Konrad Adenauer (W. Germany 1949-1963)
Postwar chancellor of West Germany who retired in 1963. He led his country from the ruins of World War II to a productive and prosperous nation that forged close relations with old enemy France, the United Kingdom and the United States. He achieved democracy, stability, international respect and economic prosperity. He was the first leader of the Christian Democratic Union.
Willy Brandt (W. Germany, 1969-1974)
He became the first Social Democratic West German chancellor; his party would govern Germany until 1982. He attempted to strengthen cooperation in western Europe and achieve reconciliation between West Germany and the countries of Eastern Europe.
Helmut Kohl (Germany, 1982-1998)
A Christian Democrat who became the new chancellor of West Germany in 1982. He cut taxes and government spending. His policies led to increasing unemployment in heavy industry but also to solid economic growth. In foreign policy, he drew close to President Reagan. He agreed to deploy U.S. cruise missiles and nuclear-armed Pershing missiles on West German territory, a decision that contributed to renewed superpower tensions. He governed during the opening of the Berlin Wall in 1989, the reunification of East and West Germany in 1990, and the end of the Cold War.
Margaret Thatcher (UK 1979-1990)
Elected prime minister in 1979; a member of the Conservative Party and a convinced neoliberal, Thatcher was determined to scale back the role of government, and in the 1980's she pushed through a series of controversial free-market policies that transformed Britain. Her government cut spending on health care, education, and public housing; reduced taxes; and privatized or sold off government-run enterprises. She encouraged low and moderate income renters in state-owned housing projects to buy their apartments at rock bottom prices. It created a whole new class of property owners, thereby eroding the electoral base of Britain's socialist Labour Party.
Joseph Stalin (1924-1953)
He replaced the New Economic Policy introduced by Lenin in the early 1920's with a highly centralized command economy, launching a period of industrialization and collectivization that resulted in the rapid transformation of the USSR from an agrarian society into an industrial power. Between 1934 and 1939 he organized and led a massive purge of the party, government,and armed forces, in which millions of so-called "enemies of the Soviet people" were imprisoned, exiled or executed. Major figures in the Communist Party, such as the old Bolsheviks, Leon Trotsky, and most of the Red Army generals, were killed after being convicted of plotting to overthrow the government and Stalin.
Nikita Khrushchev (1955-1964)
He led reformers and argued for major innovations. He had joined the party as a coal miner in 1918 and risen to a high level position in Ukraine in the 1930's and emerged as the new Soviet premier in 1955. He launched a surprise attack on Stalin and his crimes at a closed session of the Twentieth Party Congress in 1956.
The liberation of the post-Stalin Soviet Union led by reformer Nikita Khrushchev; Stalin's power of the secret police became curbed, and many forced labor camps were gradually closed. It created great ferment among intellectuals and writers who sought freedom from the constraints of socialist realism.
Hungarian Revolution (1956)
Led by students and workers-the classic urban revolutionaries-the people of Budapest installed Imre Nagy, a liberal Communist reformer, as the new prime minister in October 1956. Encouraged by extensive popular protests and joined by other Communist reformers, Nagy proposed to democratize Hungary. Though he never renounced Communism, he demanded open, multiparty elections, the relaxation of political repression, and other reforms. When Nagy announced that Hungary would leave the Warsaw Pact and asked the United Nations to protect the country's neutrality, the Soviets grew alarmed at the possibility that Hungary's independent course would effect other East Bloc countries. On November 4 Soviet troops moved in on the capital city of Budapest and crushed the revolution. Around 2,700 Hungarians died.
Berlin Wall (1961)
In 1958, in a failed attempt to staunche flow of hundreds of thousands of disgruntled East German residents who used the open border between East and West Berlin to move permanently to the West, Khrushchev tightened border controls and ordered the Western allies to evacuate the city within six months. In 1961 the East German authorities built a wall between East and West Berlin, in clear violation of existing access agreements between the Great Powers.
Cuban Missile Crisis (1962)
Khrushchev secretly ordered missiles with nuclear warheads installed in Fidel Castro's Communist Cuba in 1962. When U.S. intelligence discovered missile sites under construction, Kennedy countered with a naval blockade of Cuba. After the crisis, Khrushchev agreed to remove the Soviet missiles in return for American pledges not to disturb Castro's regime. In a secret agreement, Kennedy also promised to remove U.S. nuclear missiles from Turkey.
Boris Pasternak/ Doctor Zhivago
A Russian author who published his great novel Doctor Zhivago in 1957. Appearing in the West but not in the Soviet Union until 1988, the novel is both a literary masterpiece and a powerful challenge to communism. It tells the story of a poet who rejects the violence and brutality of the October Revolution of 1917 and the Stalinist years. Mainstream Communist critics denounced Pasternak, whose book was circulated in secret.
Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn/ One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich
An author who created a sensation when his One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich was published in 1962. His novel portrays in grim detail life in a Stalinist concentration camp- a life in which Solzhenitsyn himself had been unjustly condemned- and is a damning indictment of the Stalinist past.
Leonid Brezhnev (1964-1982)
Khrushchev's successor; during this time the U.S.S.R. began a period of limited re-Stalinization and economic stagnation. Him and his supporters talked of Stalin's "good points" and downplayed his crimes. This change informed citizens that further liberalization could not be expected at home.
Under Brezhnev's rule, him and his supporters downplayed Stalin's crimes and talked of his "good points". Brezhnev saw de-Stalinization as a threat, and dictatorship became collective rather than personal.
Prague Spring (1968)
The citizens of East Bloc countries sought political liberty as well, and the limits on reform were sharply revealed in Czechoslovakia during the 1968 "Prague Spring" (named for the country's capital city). In January 1968 reform elements in the Czechoslovak Communist Party gained a majority and voted out the long-time Stalinist leader in favor of Alexander Dubcek, whose new regime launched dramatic reforms.
The leader of the Czechoslovak Communist Party whose new regime launched dramatic reforms. He was educated in Moscow, and a dedicated communist, but he and his allies believed that they could reconcile genuine socialism with personal freedom and party democracy. They called for "socialism with a human face," relaxed state censorship, and replaced rigid bureaucratic planning with local decision making by trade unions, workers' council, and consumers.
Brezhnev Doctrine (1968)
Doctrine created by Leonid Brezhnev that held that the Soviet Union had the right to intervene militarily in any East Bloc country when necessary to preserve communist rule. The 1968 invasion of Czechoslovakia demonstrated the determination of the communist elite to maintain the status quo throughout the Soviet bloc.
Mikhail Gorbachev (1985-1991)
The most vigorous Soviet leader in a generation; he was a lawyer and experienced Communist party official who was smart, charming, and tough. He believed in communism, but realized that the Soviet Union was failing to keep up with the West and was losing its superpower status. He tried to revitalize the Soviet system with fundamental reforms. He understood that the enormous expense of the Cold War arms race had had a disastrous impact on living conditions in the Soviet Union; improvement at home, he realized, required better relations with the West.
Economic restructuring and reform implemented by Premier Mikhail Gorbachev in the Soviet Union in 1985. It permitted an easing of government price controls on some goods, more independence for state enterprises, and the creation of profit-seeking private cooperatives to provide personal services. The reforms initially produced a few improvements, but shortages grew as the economy stalled at an intermediate point between central planning and free-market mechanisms.
Soviet premier Mikhail Gorbachev's popular campaign for openness in government and the media. The initial openness in government pronouncements quickly went much further than Gorbachev intended and led to something approaching free speech, a veritable cultural revolution.
Josip Broz Tito (Yugoslavia)
He was the resistance leader and Communist chief of Yugoslavia who was able to proclaim political independence and successfully resist Soviet domination. He stood up to Stalin in 1948, and because there was no Russian army, he got away with it. Though Communist led, Yugoslavia remained outside of the Soviet bloc.
Independent Polish trade union that worked for workers' rights and political reform throughout the 1980's. This was led by Lenin Shipyards and Lech Walesa. Joined by intellectuals and supported by the Catholic Church, it became a national union with a full-time staff of 40,000 and 9.5 million members.
Pope John Paul II
Cardinal Karol Wojtyla, archbishop of Kraków, was elected pope in 1978. He preached the love of Christ and country and the "inalienable rights of man". He drew enormous crowds and electrified the Polish nation.
Solidarity's leaders pursued a self-limiting revolution, want only to defend the concessions won in this agreement. Thus, they practiced moderation, refusing to challenge directly the Communist monopoly on political power.
One of the leaders of Solidarity; he was an electrician. During the revolution, he settled for minor government concessions and Solidarity dropped plans for a massive general strike. Criticism of his leadership grew, and Solidarity lost its cohesiveness.
Revolutions of 1989
In 1989 Gorbachev's plan to reform communism from within snowballed out of control. A series of largely peaceful revolutions swept across Eastern Europe, over turning existing Communist regimes. The revolutions had momentous consequences. The peoples of the East Bloc gained political freedom. West Germany absorbed its East German rival, and a reunified Germany emerged as the most influential country in Europe. A complicated anti communist revolution swept through the Soviet Union and the multinational empire broke into a large Russia and 14 other independent states.
The term given to the relatively peaceful overthrow of communism in Czechoslovakia; the label came to signify the collapse of the East Bloc in general in 1989 to 1990. When protestors took the streets, the communist government resigned, leading to a power-sharing arrangement termed the "government of national understanding".
A dissident playwright-turned-moral-revolutionary who took part in the Velvet Revolution and signed a manifesto that came to be known as Charter 77.
Boris Yeltsin (1991-1999)
A radical reform communist who embraced the democratic movement, and was elected parliamentary leader of the Russian Soviet Republic. He boldly announced that Russia would put its interests first and declare its independence from the U.S.S.R., broadening the base of the anticommunist movement by joining the patriotism of ordinary Russians with the democratic aspirations of big-city intellectuals.
Paris Accord (1990)
In November 1990 delegates from 22 European countries joined those from the United States and the Soviet Union in Paris and agreed to a scaling down of all their armed forces. They also affirmed that all existing borders in Europe were legal and valid. For all practical purposes, the accord was a general peace treaty bringing an end to both World War II and the Cold War.
By combining theoretical work with sophisticated engineering in a large bureaucratic organization, it could tackle extremely difficult problems, from new and improved weapons for the military to better products for consumers. It was extremely expensive, requiring large-scale financing from governments and large corporations.
Embarrassed by Soviet triumphs such as the first man-made satellite to orbit the earth, the U.S. made a commitment to catch up. The U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration was founded in 1958 and won a symbolic victory by landing a manned spacecraft on the moon in 1969.
The sixties generation angrily criticized the comforts of the affluent society and challenged the social and political status quo. It challenged the growing conformity that seemed to be an inherent part of consumer society and the unequal distribution of wealth that arose from market economics.
Simon de Beauvoir/ The Second Sex
A French writer and philosopher who worked closely with Jean-Paul Sartre. His novel analyzed the position of women within the framework of existential thought. He argued that women had almost always been trapped by particularly inflexible and limiting conditions. Only through courageous action and self assertive creativity could a women become a completely free person and escape the role of the inferior.
Betty Friedan/ The Feminine Mystique
A writer and organizer whose novel called attention to the stifling aspects of women's domestic life, devoted to the service of husbands and children. Housewives lived in an "gilded cage" because they were usually not allowed to hold professional jobs or become mature adults and genuine human beings.
Treaty of Rome (1957)
In 1957 the six counties of the coal and steel community signed this, which created the European Economic Community, or common market. The first goal was a gradual reduction of all tariffs to create a single market. Other goals included the free movement of capital and labor and common economic policies and institutions.
European Economic Community/Common Market (1958-1993)
Created by 6 western and Central European countries in the West Bloc in 1957 as part of a larger search for European unity. It encouraged trade among European states, promoted global exports, and helped build shared resources for the modernization of national industries.
Maastricht Treaty (1992)
The basis for the formation of the European Union, which set financial and cultural standards for potential member states and defined criteria for membership in the momentary union. It also set legal standards and anticipated the development of common policies on defense and foreign affairs.
European Union, EU (1993-present)
The economic, cultural, and political alliance of 27 European nations. It worked to add the free movement of European labor, capital, and services to an existing free trade in goods.
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