King William's War
(1690- 1697) - increased tension between Britain and France when Austria switched sides and became French ally, a.k.a War of Grand Alliance or War of League of Augsburg, fought between England, France, and American Indian allies in colonies of New France, Acadia, and New England, New England colonists launch expedition to seize New France capital, defeated in Battle of Quebec, New Yorkers attack Quebec, New France and England make peace in 1697, Iroquois war on until 1701
Queen Anne's War
(1702- 1713) - War of Spanish Succession, fought in New England, Carolina, Quebec, and Florida, France and Spain allies, 1702:French and Indian raiders destroy several towns in Mass. & Maine, 1706: Spanish invade Carolina and nearly capture Charlestown, English colonists fail to capture St. Augustine, England seizes Hudson Bay, Newfoundland, and Acadia (Nova Scotia), treaty of Utrecht in 1713
War of Jenkin's Ear
(1739-1748) - developed into King George's War, between England & Spain (later France & Spain vs. England), following 30 years of peace after Treaty of Utrecht, Capt. Robert Jenkin's ear cut off (accused of smuggling), fighting in Florida, Georgia, West Indies, biggest battle Cartagena, Columbia, Treaty of Aix-la Chapelle, Fortress of Louisbourg returned to France and all colonial borders to former state
Ben Franklin and representatives from New England, NY, MD, and PA met with Iroquois to ally against French, goal was to be a representative body for all united colonies, doesn't work (Iroquois don't agree to treaty, colonies don't want big controlling body)
share authority with Parliament to tax and govern, Galloway's plan, views of moderates including Dickinson
Seven Years' War (French and Indian War)
(1754-1760) - British, colonists, and Iroquois vs. French and Indian allies, Britain decides to eliminate French presence in North America, French take the upper hand, tide turns and British win war, turning points: Native Americans worried that the French were getting too great an advantage-->switched sides to British/colonists & William Pitt took control of British military, encouraged colonists to fight by saying that Parliament would pay for the war
General Edward Braddock
1755, evicted French from Ohio valley and Canada, attacks Ohio Valley, Mohawk Valley, and Acadia, killed 10 miles from Ft. Duquesne by 1500 French and Indian forces
young surveyor, sent by VA to ask French to leave Ohio Valley area (1754), gains support after helping in battle for Ft. Duquesne, advances up military ladder, creates Continental Army for American Revolution, 1st president of America
took control of British military in 1758, encouraged colonists to fight in French and Indian war by saying that Parliament would pay for the war-->colonists organized more than 40,000 troops in 1758-1759, opposed tax laws on colonies, saying that they taxed themselves, became prime minister but suffered from gout and left office
General Jeffrey Amherst
captures Ft. Duquesne and Louisbourg by late 1758 (drove French from NY by following year) (Quebec fell in 1759 when Gen. Wolfe defeated Montcalm)
Treaty of Paris
(1763) - France lost Canada, most of Indian empire, and claims to all land east of Mississippi River; Spain got Louisiana, New Orleans, and lost Florida to England; England got all French lands in Canada, exclusive rights to Caribbean slave trade, commercial dominance in India
issued by George III to appease Indians and end fighting, gave British all land east of Appalachian crest, Indians had other land and gradually gave it up through treaties, slowed expansion angered colonists as population had doubled from 1750-1775, colonists still settled on illegal territory
King George III
(ruled 1760- 1820) - dealt w/ revenue situation/decisions, determined to have a strong influence in gov't, inexperienced and temperamental, made frequent changes in gov't that strained relations w/ colonists
(led by Ottawa political leader Pontiac) against British, spring and summer 1763, sacked 8 British forts around Great Lakes, Pittsburgh, and Detroit, made peace because they ran out of supplies, smallpox epidemic, lost hope for French return
Writs of Assistance
ability to seize illegally imported/smuggled goods, general search warrant, didn't require evidence for suspicion, called unconstitutional, 1761-1761
lawyer, argued case of Writs of Assistance being unconstitutional before Mass. Supreme Court 1761, lost case
(1764) - goal of raising money to offset war debt, amended Molasses Act (1733), duty on imported sugar and molasses, wildly opposed in colonies, accused smugglers trial in "vice admiralty" courts, external tax
Prime Minister George Grenvillenis
pushed Stamp Act, hoped to raise 60,000 pounds a year, believed the colonies were represented through "virtual representation"
(1765- 1766) - tax on documents, land titles, contracts, newspapers, playing cards; help combat British debt crisis, internal tax, opposed by William Pitt
1765, urged House of Burgesses to adopt several strongly-worded resolutions, passed 4, blames King George III for naming and supporting Prime Minister who designed legislature
Mass. Lt. Gov. Thomas Hutchinson
governor of Massachusetts, house was destroyed by a mob, prompted the Boston Tea Party by insisting that the tea remain in the harbor for unloading, his stolen letters were given to patriots from Franklin and ruined his reputation forever, 2nd most infamous figure of American Revolution (after Benedict Arnold)
Sons of Liberty
take actions against Stamp Act, demand resignation of Stamp Act tax collectors, attack homes of customs officials and Gov. Thomas Hutchinson, power of the "mob" (the "rabble" - laborers, seamen)
Stamp Act Congress
(October 1765, NYC) - met in NYC Oct. 1765, 9 colonial assemblies sent representatives, set of "resolves" - trial by jury, challenge constitutionality of Stamp and Sugar Acts, seek compromise with Great Britain, petition of repeal, advocate boycott of British goods
reaffirm Parliament's "full power and authority to make laws and statues to bind the colonies and people of America in all cases whatsoever"
New York Suspending Act
also called Restraining Act, suspended NY assembly until it submitted to Quartering Act, threatens to deprive colonists of representative governments
Revenue Act (Townshend Duties)
external taxes on glass, lead, paint, paper, and tea (products from England), obvious attempt to raise money for the British treasury (because it made prices moderate but not out of reach), Townshend's ulterior motive: create a fund to pay royal governors' salaries, Revenue Act ended up worsening British debt by 23,000 pounds
John **inson's Letter from a Farmer in Pennsylvania
Dec. 1767, said that taxing was unconstitutional unless elected representatives voted for it
Samuel Adams' "circular letter"
drafted in 1768, condemned threatening self gov't and taxation w/o representation, VA followed, Parliament overreacted-->other colonies joined in protest (widespread opposition to Townshend duties)
Daughters of Liberty
Boston 1770, 300+ women denounced tea consumption, played small role in defeating Stamp Act, spinning bees, inspired nonimportation
women denounced tea drinking (women served and drank most tea in colonies), rye coffee and bear venison (not tea or expensive meats)
American Board of Customs Commissioners introduced by Townshend, increased number of port officials, funded building of colonial coastguard, gave money to secret informers (turned in smugglers), led to widespread hatred of informers and increased violence (most hated in Boston)
John Han** and the Liberty
June 1768, Hancock suspected of smuggling, crowd tried to take back John Hancocks's sloop (boat), mob drove revenue inspectors from Boston
infamous after denouncing George III's policies, arrested many times, won Parliament seat but denied by legislature, hailed by colonists, emboldened them to stand up for beliefs
colonists resented Irish Catholic soldiers and took jobs for lower wages, March 5, 1770 - tension between troops and crowd-->threats to shoot to break up crowd-->shot 11 and killed 5; John Adams defended soldiers
Boston lawyer (defended soldiers from Boston Massacre), Founding Father, radical voice at Continental Congresses
committees of correspondence
Samuel Adams convinced every town to appoint someone to exchange info and coordinate defense and defend rights (late 1772), copied throughout New England and all the colonies by early 1774
1763- 1764) - about 1500 from PA, attacked peaceful Conestoga Indians, Gov. John Penn issued arrest warrant that was ignored, threatened Moravian Indians in Bethelehem, outraged that Quaker leaders were protecting Indians, Jan. 1764 - march into Philadelphia, Franklin intervenes and saves the day
Treaty of Fort Stanwix
(1768) - between British and Six Nations Iroquois, PA and VA received land along Ohio River
The Gaspee Affair
(1772) - a ship enforcing the unpopular trade regulations is ran aground, looted, and burned in Warwick, Rhode Island. Abraham Whipple and John Brown lead the charge.
Tea Act (1773)
Lord North eliminates duties on BEITC Tea and allows them to sell directly to consumers. The money would be used to help BEITC escape bankruptcy and also to pay American Governors. Committees of Correspondence protest. Leads to Boston Tea Party.
"Tarring and Feathering"
To pour hot tar onto a person and then throw feathers on them as a means of mob protest. Very painful, a demeaning, for the victim.
Boston Tea Party (Dec. 16, 1773)
Sam Adams instructs 50 men to dress as Mohawk Indians, symbolizing a strong, proud American Identity, storm the wharf and and destroyed almost 45 tons of tea.
Lord Dunmore's Proclamation
Virginia's Governor Lord Dunmore proclaims that any able-bodied male slave who enlists in the cause of restoring royal authority will be free.