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uses of AI (4)

1. increase efficiency use of male
2. genetic progress
3. export genetics
4. key factor in dairy improvement since 1950s

who discovered that adding antibiotics to the semen reduced disease in the receiving females?

Almquist (1950s)

advantage of AI (6)

1. widespread use of outstanding sires
2. progeny testing → leads to rapid genetic progress
3. introduction of genetic material
4. extended useful "life" of male
5. reduced risk of disease transmission
6. decreased risk of human injury

potential disadvantages/considerations of AI (5)

1. heat detection (rely on humans rather than animals)
2. proper semen handling
3. proper sample identification
4. possibility of genetic disaster
5. facilities/training necessary

species differences in frozen semen:
1. bull
2. boar
3. ram
4. stallion

1. freezes well; good fertility
2. lower litter size & CR
3. CR adequate with uterine insemination
4. very little

use of AI in various species:
1. dairy cattle
2. beef cattle
3. turkey
4. chickens
5. swine
6. horses

1. routine
2. increasing
3. required
4. increasing
5. rapidly increasing
6. slowly increasing

semen storage method for...
1. dairy & beef cattle
2. swine
3. stallion
4. ram
5. poultry

1. frozen
2. mostly cooled
3. mostly cooled
4. fresh
5. fresh

process of artificial insemination (5 steps)

1. semen collection
2. evaluation
3. extension (dilution)
4. packaging
5. freezing

semen collection methods (5)

1. vaginal recovery
2. artificial vagina → used for cattle (not boars); trigger is warm water
3. "gloved hand" → used only in boars; trigger is pressure
4. electroejaculation
5. pelvic massage

semen evaluation (5)

1. concentration
2. live-dead
3. motility
4. abnormals
5. acrosomal integrity

semen packaging methods (4)

1. tubes or bags (fresh, chilled)
2. pellets → stored in holes in dry ice; used for boars
3. ampules
4. straws

considerations that must be made when freezing sperm (2)

1. avoid cold shock
2. protect from ice crystal formation

semen thawing (3)

1. procedure varies by species
2. generally, rapid increase in temperature
3. important to avoid cold shock

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