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Terms in this set (137)
-observable and measurable aspects of children's behavior
- behavior can be learned or unlearned as the result to stimulus-and-response actions
- conditioned response
- teacher centered
- usually work individually, not in small groups, or classmates
Constructivist Learning Theory
- kids are active and engaged learners who construct their own knowledge
- ingrate new info with old info
- child centered
- schemes: how children learn
- assimilation: add to file
- accommodation: create a new file
Sociolinguistic Learning Theory
- language organizes thought and is a learning tool
- zone of proximal development
- as children learn, the teacher withdraws their support
- reading and writing are interactive processes of meaning making
- focuses on comprehension and construct meaning (reader-based and text-based)
- executive monitor
Reader Response Theory
reading for information
reading for fun
Four Cueing Systems
- phonological: sound
- syntactic: structural
- semantic: meaning
- pragmatic: social and cultural use
- phonological awareness
- phonemic awareness
written representation of a phoneme using one or more letters
- smallest unit of sound
- 44 units of sounds
smallest meaningful unit of language
can stand alone as a word
must be attached to a free morpheme
4 basic types of reading programs
- basal reading programs
- literature focus unit
- literature circles
- reading and writing workshop
when children start recognizing logos on restaurants, departments, grocery stores, and commonly used household items
- explicit instruction
- authentic application
- reading and writing strategies
- oral language
- tools for learning
concepts of print
test... book-orienation; directionality concepts; letter and word concepts... teacher reads short book aloud but children point to print to read
emergent literacy (reading)
- environmental print
- likes books
- pretend to read
- uses picture cues
- reread familiar books
- know some letter names
- 5 to 20 high frequency words
emergent literacy (writing)
- know difference between drawing and writing
- write some letters or scribble on the page
- understand directionality
- likes writing
- write first and last name
- 5 to 20 high frequency words
- uses sentence frames
strategies for emergent reading
- shared reading and writing
- independent reading and writing
3 stages of reading/writing development
beginning literacy (reading)
- 20 to 100 high frequency words
- know letter names and sound
- spoken words to written words
- beginning, middle, and ending sounds to decode
- read slowy... word by word
- makes reasonable predictions
beginning literacy (writing)
- left to right
- upper and lower case
- 20 to 100 high frequency words
- reread writing
fluent literacy (reading)
- expression while reading
- reading rate: 100 words per minute
- read silent
- 100 to 300 high frequency words
- read independently
- make inferences
fluent literacy (writing)
- write drafts // final copies
- more than one paragraph
- indent paragraphs
- spell 100 or more words correctly
- sophisticated vocab.
uses punctuation correctly
system of letters that stand for a series of sounds
strategy for segmenting sounds in a word that involves drawing a box to represent each sound
word made up of individual sounds
number of sounds in the English language
combine the sounds represented by letters to pronounce a word
2 consonants that go together to make a blended sound
2 consonants that go together to make 1 new sound
2 vowels that go together to make 1 sound
vowel sound that represents a "glided vowel sound"
letter/s after the vowel along with vowel
letter/s before the vowel
most useful phonic rules
- two sounds of c
- two sounds of g
- CVC pattern
- final e or CVCe pattern
- CV pattern
- r controlled vowels
- kn and wr
guidelines for teaching phonics
- high utility phonics that are most useful for reading unfamiliar words
- begin with consonant sounds and end with r-controlled vowels
- explicit instruction
- opportunities to apply (word sort, making words, interactive writing
- teachable moments
- oral activities
- review phonics as part of spelling instruction
children's attempts to spell words that reflect their developing knowledge about the spelling system
what are the spelling stages?
2. letter name alphabetic
3. within-word pattern
4. syllables and affixes
5. derivational relations
characteristics of emergent
- distinction between writing and drawing
- how to make letters
- direction of writing on a page
- some letter sound matches
characteristics of letter name alphabetic
- alphabetic principle
- consonant sounds
- short vowel sounds
- consonant blends and digraphs
characteristics of within word
- long vowel spelling patterns
- r controlled vowels
- more complex consonant patterns
- diphthongs and other less common vowel patterns
characteristics of syllables and affixes
- inflectional endings
- compound words
characteristics of derivational relations
- consonant alternations
- vowel alternations
- latin affixes / root words
- greek affixes / root words
time frame for using proofreading
first grade through whole-class activities (interactive writing)
identifying words accurately and quickly
reading smoothly, quickly, and with expression
3 components in fluency
- reading rate
- word recognition
ability to manipulate the sounds in words orally
word-study activity in which children group words into categories
children recognize high frequency words automatically and use their knowledge of phonics and word parts to decode unfamiliar words
words that have nearly the same meaning
high frequency words
common english word, usually a word among the 100 or 300 most common words
1. two consonants come between two vowels in a word, divide syllables between the consonants
2. more than two consonants together in a word, divide the syllables keeping the blends together
3. one consonant between two vowels in a word, divide the syllables after the first vowels
4. if #3 doesn't make a word, divide the syllables after the consonant that comes between the vowels
5. two vowels together that don't represent a long vowel sound or a diphthong, divide the syllables between the vowels
apply what they've learned about phoneme-grpheme correspondences and phonics rules to decode words
use morphemic analysis to identify multisyllabic word
ability to orally read sentences expressively, wit appropriate phrasing and intonation
strategy for categorizing and analyzing a child's oral reading errors
types of choral readings
- echo reaching
- leader and chorus
- small group
teachers use it to teach spelling concepts as well as other concepts about written language; usually as a group
review what they learn; focus on content rather than mechanics; takes 5-10 minutes to complete
syllable added to the beginning of a word to change the word's meaning
syllable added to the end of a word to change the word's meaning
suffixes that express plurality or possession when added to a noun, tense when added to a verb, or comparison when added to an adjectives
meaning system of language
structural system of language or grammar
social use system of language
words that sound alike but are spelled differently
words with opposite meanings
group of words that interrupt figuratively
building background knowledge
determine whether readers lack world or literary knowledge and then provide experiences, visual representations, and talk to build the concept
children make predictions, draw inferences, monitor their progress, and use other strategies to understand what they're reading
2 consonants that go together to make a "blended sound"
2 consonants that go together to make one new sound
examples of digraphs
-sh -wh -ch -th -ck
a vowel sound that represents a glided vowel sound
example of diphthongs
- 'ou' as in house - 'ow' as in cow
- 'oi' as in coin - 'oy' as in boy
2 vowels that go together to make one sound
- 'ow' as in snow - 'oo' long sound as in moon
- 'oo' short sound as in book - 'ou' as in through
- 'au' as in caught - 'aw' as in saw
- oa/boat - ee/green - ai/rain - ay/day
- ie/pie - ie/cookie - oe/toe
- story passed down from a long time ago
- fable: like 3 little pigs
- moral to the story
- aren't real
- new world is created
- example: charolette's web
- feel real and believable but they aren't true
- 2 types: contemporary and historical fiction
- point of view
- expository text structure = informal books
- sequence: numerical or chronological order
- comparison: comparing
- problem and solution
- rhymed verse: rhyming
- narrative poems: tells a story
- haiku and related forms: japanese (17 syllables arranged in 5-7-5 pattern)
- free verse: doesn't rhyme
- found poems: newspaper, stories, info books into one poem
explicit instruction about literacy procedures concepts, strategies, and skills that are taught
- work in small groups to read independently
- teacher picks the book
read or reread a selection with a classmate
reading out loud
- too easy
- just right
- too hard
5 stages of reading
5 stages of writing
Instructional reading level
level of reading material the kid can read with teacher support and instruction; 90-94% accuracy
Frustration reading level
level of reading material that is too difficult to read correctly
Independent reading level
level of reading material that a kid can read independently with high comprehension; 95-100% accuracy
What are some signs of child abuse?
Awkward social behavior, bruises, and being withdrawn.
Who should a teacher talk to if there is suspected child abuse?
What might cause a child to become easily agitated in class?
Lack of sleep.
What developmental patterns should a professional teacher assess to meet the needs of the student?
Social, physical, academic.
A preschool teacher is concerned because the three year olds in her class do not play with each other. Each student plays without interacting with others in the class. What advice would you give her?
Don't worry. It is typical for young children engage in "parallel" activities playing alongside their peers without directly interacting with one another.
During a conference about reading difficulties, a parent asks a first grade teacher for advice on how to make sure the three year old sibling doesn't end up having trouble learning to read like his brother. Based on research, what should the teacher recommend?
Intense practice on alphabet, exposure to numerous books, and to work on rhyming words and sounds.
A teacher notices that a student is sullen, and has several bruises on his head, arms, and legs. When asked, the student responds that he hit his arm getting out of bed that morning. What should the teacher do?
Report suspected abuse to the school counselor.
A child exhibits the following symptoms: a lack of emotional responsivity, indifference to physical contact, abnormal social play, and abnormal speech. What is is the likely diagnosis for this child?
How many stages of intellectual development does Piaget define?
Four: Sensorimotor (birth - age 2 where children experience the world through movement and senses) Prepoerational (age 2 - age 7 is acquisition of motor skills) Concrete Operational (age 7 - age 11 where children begin to think logically about concrete events) Formal Operational (after age 11 where development of abstract reasoning occurs).
What is Gardner's Multiple Intelligences Theory?
That students learn in at least seven different ways which included visually(spatially), musically, verbally, logically(mathematically), interpersonally, intrapersonally, and bodily(kinesthetically).
Research over several decades has shown that student performance is directly impacted by what?
The teacher's high expectations.
How can student misconduct be redirected at times?
State expectations about behavior.
According to Piaget what stage is characterized by the ability to think abstractly and to use logic?
Formal operations: after age 11 (development of abstract reasoning).
According to Piaget's theory of cognitive development, what is the process of incorporating new objects, information or experiences into the existing cognitive structure?
At approximately what age is the average child able to define abstract terms such as honest and justice?
10-12 years old.
The No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act mandates that early childhood programs do what?
Construct curriculum models specific to the development of early childhood and elementary programs for academic enhancement.
Which of the following is a widely known curriculum model for early childhood programs?
Montessori Method. (based on the works and writings of Italian physician Maria Montessori for preschool age children).
Head Start Programs were created in what decade?
1960s. (created to provide a comprehensive curriculum model for preparation of low-income students for success).
What is the most important factor in raising academic outcomes for all students as required in the NCLB law?
The quality of instruction in the classroom. (done by experienced educators will ultimately improve the academic outcome of all students)
What should be included in effective curriculum models for early childhood programs?
Differentiated instruction for group/individual academic needs along with best practices and instructional approaches.
What pieces of information may schools collect to determine if a child has a disability that may qualify the child for services under IDEA?
A complete psychological evaluation, present levels of academic achievement, along with vision and hearing screening information.
What type of punishment will take place for failure to make a report when abuse or neglect is suspected?
Criminal charges, monetary fine, and revocation of certification and license.
IDEA is a federal law passed in 1990 that has a direct impact on classrooms. What does the acronym IDEA stand for?
Individuals with Disabilities Education Act.
In your classroom, there is a student who has been exhibiting difficulty in the area of reading. The child has a learning disability and already receives special education services. According to IDEA, who must be involved in developing the child's individual educational plan (IEP) to address these concerns?
The parent or guardian.
Where can educators gain information when seeking quality strategies to improve early childhood education for students?
Professional organizations, websites, and journal articles.
What is the world's largest educational organization that works on behalf of the education of young children?
The National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC), who focus on improving & developing programs and services for children from birth to age 8.
Which international organization is devoted to studying the research and data from national organizations and school communities on effective reading instruction and strategies that promote reading acquisition?
International Reading Association (IRA).
The NCLB Act requires schools to establish AYP. What does the acronym AYP stand for?
Adequate Yearly Progress.
What are some current trends in education?
Differentiated instruction so that no child is left behind and innovation in technology.
What is the estimated range of the annual cost of teacher turnover?
5-7 billion dollars.
When students engage in this type of learning in order to understand the world around them, the learning process involves the formulation of questions that convert new information into an active application of knowledge.
Inquiry-based Learning (requires students to be actively involved in the learning process and in the construction of new knowledge).
What can be done to decrease violent behavior that even young children are exhibiting at school?
Provide student with social strategies to improve cooperative learning and communication.
What type of assessment requires students to create an answer or a response to a question or task?
What will an alternative assessment approach do when implemented effectively?
Require higher-order thinking and problem-solving, provide opportunities for student self-reflection and self-assessment, and use real world applications to connect students to the subject.
What the critical elements of instructional process?
Content, materials, activities, goals, and learner needs.
What would improve planning for instruction?
Evaluate the outcomes of instruction.
When are students more likely to understand complex ideas?
When they are clearly defined by the teacher and are given examples and non-examples of the concept.
What should a teacher do when students have not responded well to an instructional activity?
Reevaluate learner needs.
If teachers attend to content, instructional materials, activities, learner needs, and goals in instructional planning, what could be an outcome?
Effective classroom performance.
Reducing off task time and maximizing the amount of time students spend attending to academic tasks is closely related to which of the following?
Business-like behaviors of the teacher.
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