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ancien regime

Meaning Old Regime, this has come to mean to life and institutions of pre-revolutionary Europe


An income tax in France that the nobles technically had to pay, but few payed it in full


In France, forced labor on public works

aristocratic resurgence

Nobility's reaction when the expanding power of monarchs seemed to threaten their social position or privileges


Service that serfs were required to pay to lords in the Hapsburg's lands

family economy

The economic structure of a household. This prevailed over Europe for centuries.

consumer revolution

Took place after the Industrial Revolution, when the suply and demand of factory goods soared

Industrial Revolution

The sustained economic growth brought on by the industrialization of Europe in the 18th century

Agricultural Revolution

The change from small family owned farms to large scale agriculture, brought on by innovations in farming


The fencing of common land by landlords in England to use every piece of possible farming land and increase profits. This greatly upset peasants.


The title that the oldest boys in British noble families inherited, which came with the ability to sit in the House of Lords


Federal dues that French peasants had to pay

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