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US History I : Unit 5
Mr Terry , CCHS
Terms in this set (88)
What was the US ranked in the world for GNP during the 1900s?
They were #1 and lead an industrialized nation
What does GNP stand for ?
Gross National Product
What natural resources were available for the US during the Industrialization era?
Timber, Coal, Iron, Oil
What happened to the US workforce during the Industrialization era?
Workforce was large. Population tripled, large families, lots of immagrants
Who is Horatio Alger ?
Writer. Wrote rags to riches stories
What is capitalism ?
A business that is owned privately
How do entrepreneurs affect the workforce?
They were business owners who created jobs
How did the government stimulate the economy during the late 1800s?
They gave railroad builders land grants, made protective tariffs , and created the Laissez-faire (not many regulations so businesses can grown)
What is an entrepreneur?
A business owner
What is a protective tariff?
Something that makes american products stronger
What is Laissez Faire economics?
When the Government stays out of the economy
What two inventions changed life during this era, who built them?
Telephone - Alexander Graham Bell
Light bulb (allowed workers to work longer) - Thomas Edison
What act gave government money and land to railroad builders?
Pacific Railway Act
How were railroads and immigrants related?
Immigrant labor (mostly Chinese and Irish) built about 90 % of the railroads in the US
What were the benefits of the railroads?
Time zones were developed, transportation was faster, united different regions
What obstacles did Railroads face in the West?
Little rainfall and lack of natural resources
Who was the 18th president and what act did he pass trying to change US money?
Ulysses S Grant. Passed the Courage Act of 1837 making no more silver coins
What are the two types of business alignment? Whats the differences?
Vertical- company buys smaller companies that provide resources for production
Horizontal- company buys up all of its competitors
What is a trust?
Small group of companies that unite to maximize profits.
What is a corporations?
businesses made to maximize profits
What is a Monopoly?
business that corners the market on a product
Name 3 tycoons and their product they monopolized
Rockfeller, Carnegie, Duke
Rockefeller - Oil
Carnegie - Steel
Duke - Tobacco
What was started in 1817 but had massive growth following reconstruction ?
What is the difference between a robber baron and a captain of industry?
Robber Barron - rich business owners that seek to only maximize profits
Industry - Provided jobs, stimulated economy, philanthropists (cared for people)
What did Andrew Carnegie write to encourage a wealthy business owners to give back to their communities?
"Gospel of Wealth"
What is Social Darwinism ?
Idea that strongest companies will survive at the expense of the weakest. Said government should stay out of business. It is used by big business' to crush competition companies.
What is a labor union?
A group of people who form to help protect workers
Who was the 19th president that didn't like labor unions>
Rutherford B. Hayes , only served one term
How did business fight labor unions?
They made blacklists (list that people put a persons name on telling others not to hire him) , had lockouts (business lock out workers to see if they can provide for families by themselves) , and hired scabs (people who replaces a striking worker)
What were workers hired to replace strikers called?
How do labor unions fight their employers?
Had strikes, protested , and had rallies
What was the first labor union ever created?
Knights of Labor
What were the KOL's goals?
8 hr work day, equal pay for women, and abolish child labor
What was the second labor union created by 20 different trades?
American Federation of Labor
What president (#20) was assassinated during his first year in office?
Which president (#21) passed the Pendleton Service act to stop political corruptions and help labor unions?
Which president (#22) was the only president to serve 2 non consecutive terms? He wanted to lower tariffs to prevent American business from growing to large and taking advantage of its workers.
What obstacles did labor unions face?
People thought they were violent, they weren't getting what they were fighting for, and the government was against them
What is a yellow dog contract?
A contact that made workers agree not to join a union
Why did many move west to try and find work building on?
What type of settlements were established around work and natural resources in the West?
When was the transcontinental railroad started and why did production slow before 1869 ?
Building started in 1845, slowed during the civil war
Describe the Homestead act.
gave land in west to anyone including freed slaves
You got 160 acres
You Live there 5 years
You Cultivate land/ farm it
You had 21 years old
Inspection determined, if you could keep it
How many social classes existed on the frontier and what were they?
*Only one social Class
Skilled and unskilled laborers
miners and prospectors,
former soldiers after Civil War
all looking for a better life.
Drifters with criminal records or a past they wanted to escape. Afrinca Americans attracted to the greater opportunity and freedom from prejudice
What happened to women's rights on the frontier?
womens rights increased because they were important to the survival, so their position in household increased
What three inventions spurred the expansion of the west?
barbed wire - allowed farmers to keep track of their herds
refrigeradated cars - changed cattle industry
What type of people moved west for work but rarely found it due to immigrant labor?
What two types of immigrants were the primary workers on the railroads during this time period?
Chinese and Irish
How violent was the west really?
west was not as violent as we think, cowboys were not gunslingers but cattle herders
Railroad strike of 1877
-Economic recession in 1873
- Cause : After many railroads cut wages
- First nationwide protest.
- Workers walked off jobs, blocked tracks.
- president Hayes sent in military and 100 died
- Significance: failure of strike convinced labor union organizers that unions needed to be better managed
Haymarket Riot of 1886
- Nationwide strike to support 8 hr workday
- 1 person died in Chicago after a clash with the police
- 3000 gathered in Haymarket square to protest the killing of the person
- Bomb exploded killing 7 police officers
- 7 more offices died after shooting one another on accident
Pullman Car Company Strike
- Lead by Eugene Debs - leader of the American Railway Union
- Pullman Palace Car company cut wages
- ARU boycotted cares
- Federal court ordered the boycott to tend
- American Socialist Party formed
- Socialism is the idea that the entire community owns the business not just the individual people. Lead to communism.
What animal was nearly hunted to extinction by western settlers ?
What Island was the West coast island for immigration, brought in immigrants from China, Japan, Russia, etc.
What was the Chinese Exclusion act? How long did it last?
Banned Chinese immigrants for 10 yrs
The Chinese immigrated after the discovery of what in Cali?
Which island in New York was the East coast immigration check point?
What happened to many immigrants names on arrival?
How were immigrant neighborhoods separated?
separated by ethnic group
Who is Jacob Riis? and what did he report?
journalist and photographer that reported poor conditions of immigrants
What is a Muckraker?
Someone who exposed bad about society
The blending of cultures in the US brought back what famous phrase?
What is it called when cultures spread and mix through war, trade, and immigration?
Describe living and working conditions for immigrants
The death of the Buffalo and the idea of land owner ship lead to what wars in the West?
Western Indian Wars
Which Lakota Chief started these famous wars? "If a white man take my country, where will i go?"
Who used the US military to protect land as he pursued gold on the frontier?
What battle did this man and the Lokota chief clash at ? Americans had 600 men and NA had 2000 angry men.
Battle of Little Big Horn 1871
How did the Battle of Little big horn effect the reputation of western natives?
Americans saw natives as violent
What group of African Americans were commissioned by the US military to fight the natives in the west?
What apache chief lead raids against US and Mexican military before he was captured?
What battle saw the death of 200 women, children and elderly native by the hands of the US military?
Following the series of massacres and battles, what act forced natives to either assimilate into American Society or be forced onto reservations?
What book written by Helen Hunt Jackson, exposed the US public to the terrible conditions of the Natives?
A Century Of Dishonor
What is Urbanization?
Influx of immigrants and migrants cause a population boom in cities. City services (housing, h20, sanitation) are stretched to the limit.
What is a political machine?
A group that controlled a political party's activities
What is a graft?
a form of political corruption, is the unscrupulous use of a politician's authority for personal gain
This corruption is going to lead to the adoption of the civil service system, what is that?
a system where individuals are employed (hired) on the basis of professional merit as proven by competitive examinations
What act brought about the civil service system?
Pendleton Service Act ( Chester A. Arthur)
What does a political machine do?
Offered services to voters in exchange for votes
How is a political machine set up?
1st City boss, 2nd Ward Bosses, 3rd Precinct captains, and 4th Precinct Workers
What are constituents?
What type of people did the Political machine view as constituents, they wanted their party to receive the vote.
Does the leader of the political machine run for office?
Why was it so easy for the Political machines to communicate with the immigrants?
Bosses and precinct captains often 1st or 2nd generation immigrants themselves
What is th best example of a political machine in NYC?
Who was the boss of that machine ?
What cartoonist exposed this city boss to the NYC public?
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