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Retroperitoneal Organ



holds arteries and nerves coming into digestive tract

Parotid Gland

largest salivary gland

Lower esophageal Sphincter

failure results in reflux; acid into esophagus




involved in absorption of fatty substances

Parietal cells

responsible for production of intrinsic factor and stomach acid


converts pepsinogen to active pepsin

Parietal cells

helps in activation of inactive pepsinogen to active pepsin

Cephalic phase

triggered by sight, smell, and taste


stimulates parietal cells to increase acid production

submucosal plexus

network of nerves responsible for the primary regulation of secretin in the GI tract


released by the presence of fatty acid in the duodenum; acts on the gall bladder

Small intestine

duodenum; jejenum; ileum


substance produced by cells of the duodenum due to acidic contents in the lumen

Branches of the celiac trunk

common hepatic; left gastric; splenic

Organ that contains endocrine and exocrine cells



substance that directly stimulates secretion of insulin

Functions of the liver

synthesis of clotting factors; convuersion of bilirubin; detoxification

large intestine

involved in absorption of water


inhaled irritants lead to excessive mucous; inflamation


beats upward preventing trapped debris from moving down to the alveolar sacs

Vital capacity

maximum air you can take in after maximum expiration


disease associated with smoking

Functions of hemoglobin

transport CO2; buffers blood; transport O2


phase of respiration where there is negative pressure in lungs

restrictive lung diseases

VC is reduced

Tidal volume

volume of air inhaled and exhaled with each normal respiration


structure in throat which prevents entrance of food in trachea

Obstructive lung diseases

FEV is reduced


released by endocrine cells in pancreas

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