Thesis Final Exam

A psychotherapist who believes that deviant behavior can be traced either to genetic anomalies or to problems in the physical structure of the brain most likely subscribes to which of the following views of abnormality?
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Balance is influenced by thesemicircular canalsHumanistic psychologists believe that the drive toward self-actualization isinnateA stubborn individual who accuses peers of being uncooperative is exhibiting which of the following defense mechanisms?ProjectionHarry Harlow's experiments with rhesus monkeys suggest which of the following as most important for infants when establishing an attachment to their mothers?The tactile characteristics of the motherThe biological clock that operates in human beings to adjust their functioning to night-and-day periodicity is referred to asa circadian rhythmVisual acuity is best in thefoveaIndividuals who believe that an unpleasant experience is unavoidable and therefore do nothing to change the course of events are exhibitinglearned helplessnessWhich of the following systems produces, circulates, and regulates levels of hormones in the body?Endocrine systemThe brain scans of people with amnesia are most likely to show damage to thehippocampusIn treating a patient for depression, Dr. Pratt focuses on changing the ways in which the patient interprets events. Which type of therapy is Dr. Pratt using?CognitiveUnderstanding that things continue to exist even when they are not within view is calledobject permanenceWhen is it permissible for a psychologist to share a client's test scores with another person?When the client provides written permission to share resultsCommunity psychologists intervene at the primary level when theydesign prevention programs for potential problems before the problems actually occurOn individual intelligence tests such as the Stanford-Binet and Wechsler scales, an IQ of 100 indicates that the test takerscored at the average level for test takers of the same ageWhich of the following is LEAST likely to affect the immune system's ability to ward off illness?Being around someone who has a serious case of the fluThe rationale underlying the use of projective personality tests, such as the Rorschach Test and the Thematic Apperception Test, is that theyreveal the subjects' personalities by eliciting responses to vague, ambiguous stimuliThe tendency to develop a positive attitude toward a product that has been advertised repeatedly in the media is referred to asthe mere-exposure effectAs you watch a friend walk away from you, your retinal image of your friend gets smaller. Despite this, you do not perceive him to be shrinking. This is an example ofsize constancyWhich of the following is the correct sequence of the neural chain of events set in motion by an environmental stimulus?Receptors, afferent neurons, interneurons, efferent neurons, effectorsAn advantage of group therapy over individual therapy is that group therapyenables clients to realize that their problems are not uniqueA study can be regarded as scientific only ifits conclusions can be verified or refuted by subsequent studiesWhen a newborn infant is touched on the cheek, the infant will turn its head toward the source of stimulation. This behavior is known asrootingNeurotransmitters are typically stored in which of the following parts of a neuron?The terminal buttonsIn order to yield information that is generalizable to the population from which it was drawn, a sample must berepresentative of the populationIndividuals exhibiting a hostile type A personality pattern are at an increased risk forcardiovascular diseaseThe factors chiefly responsible for interpersonal attraction includeproximity and similarityIn a memory study, the experimenter reads the same list of words to two groups. She asks group A to count the letters in each word, and she asks group B to focus on the meaning of each word for a later memory quiz. During a recall test, participants in group B recall significantly more words than participants in group A. Memory researchers attribute this effect to differences inlevels of processingRational-emotive behavior therapy assumes that abnormal functioning results from which of the following?Unreasonable beliefs or assumptionsAccording to Freudian theory, the component of the personality that is "blind, impulsive, and irrational" is theidIn a research study, informed consent is a concern ofethicsThe correlation between two measures obtained on a group of individuals is graphically represented as ascatterplotThe concept of habituation is best exemplified by which of the following situations?A college student is no longer kept awake by her roommate's late-night typingThe reversible figure above illustrates the Gestalt organizing principle offigure-groundStaff members at a mental health hospital do not respond to patients who use threats, but praise patients who are courteous. Which of the following psychotherapeutic approaches is being used?Behavioral therapyWhich of the following is the best example of shaping?A teacher rewards a student for sitting quietly for ten minutes on Monday, fifteen minutes on Tuesday, twenty minutes on Wednesday, and thirty minutes on Thursday.David Hubel and Torsten Wiesel's research on responses of the brain to visual stimuli showed thatmany cortical cells respond most strongly to specific visual informationJudy believes that her fate is determined by her own actions. Judy's belief best illustratesan internal locus of controlAn instructor conducted an experiment to determine the effects of two different methods of study on the amount students learned in introductory physics. The results showed that the average amount learned by the group using one method was greater than the average amount learned by the group using the other. However, the difference was not statistically significant. Which of the following is the most appropriate conclusion to be drawn?There is a possibility that the difference between the two groups occurred by chance.A student's test score of 86 is at the 42nd percentile. This means that this student hasscored the same as or higher than 42 percent of her fellow studentsWhich of the following provides information regarding brain function by monitoring the brain at work through metabolism of glucose?Positron emission tomography (PET)A person assembling a tool one week after reading the instructions can remember the first and last steps of the procedure but not the middle ones. This best illustrates which of the following?The serial position effectCarol Gilligan's critique of Lawrence Kohlberg's stages of moral development focuses primarily ondifferences between males and females in the course of moral developmentFor extinction to occur, which of the following must be true of the conditioned response (CR), the conditioned stimulus (CS), and the unconditioned stimulus (UCS)?The CS is repeatedly presented in the absence of the UCS, and the CR loses strength.Which of the following behaviors is most closely associated with the foot-in-the-door phenomenon?Sutan asks his father for $5, and when he agrees, Sutan asks him for $15 more.A child who learns that spoons are tableware and then correctly calls forks and knives tableware is demonstratingstimulus generalizationWhich of the following best describes the response of members of the American Psychological Association to ethical issues in research?They have developed codes of ethics for research with both human participants and animal subjects.Lithium carbonate has been useful in some instances in the treatment ofbipolar disorderWhich of the following is an example of a prelinguistic event?BabblingAll of the following are reasons for requiring clearly specified procedures for the administration and scoring of assessment measures, such as standardized tests, EXCEPT todecrease the amount of time needed to administer the testJohn B. Watson is best known as the founder ofbehaviorismPhotoreceptors relay visual information to the brain through which of the following cells?Bipolar and ganglionRobert Rescorla's contingency model of classical conditioning states thatconditioning occurs only when one event reliably predicts anotherWhich of the following types of validity is established by demonstrating that there is a correlation between scores on a test and later academic performance?PredictiveWhich of the following best supports the hypothesis that basic human emotions, such as sadness, are innate?Basic emotions are understood and expressed in a similar fashion by individuals from diverse cultures.In studying the behavior of five year olds in free-play situations, a cognitive psychologist would be most interested in the children'sproblem-solving strategiesWhich of the following results of correlational studies implies that environment contributes to the determination of IQ?Correlations for children and their adoptive parents are statistically significant and positive.Developmental research on the formation of attachment indicates that a child's secure attachment to its mother during infancy is predictive of which of the following during its toddler years?Social competenceHallucinations are characteristic ofpsychotic disordersAlfred Binet's efforts to measure intelligence were directed atpredicting children's success in schoolTraining in the construction of an anxiety hierarchy and in relaxation techniques is likely to be part of the treatment for which of the following?Specific phobiaA supervisor who doubts the competence of a new employee unwittingly criticizes everything the new employee does. If the new employee consequently performs poorly, which of the following will most likely have occurred?A self-fulfilling prophecyAccording to Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs, the need to have respect for ourselves and to be valued by others is classified within the category ofesteem needsWhich part of the nervous system is most immediately activated by sudden fear?SympatheticAlicia has started a new and very different job but believes in her skills and ability to carry out the tasks required of her. Albert Bandura would refer to Alicia's sense of confidence as which of the following?Self-efficacyStanley Schachter and Jerome Singer view emotion as resulting fromcognitive labels of physiological changesThe tendency to believe that another person's behavior is caused by dispositional factors rather than by environmental factors is calledthe fundamental attribution errorAn individual who drinks alcohol daily finds it necessary to drink increasing amounts to achieve the state of well-being attained in the past. This individual is showingalcohol toleranceWhich of the following most accurately describes a dependent variable?Some aspect of a participant's response that is measured in an experimentAll human languages have several basic sounds in common calledphonemesThe sequence of shifts in the electrical charge of a neuron is calledthe action potentialA technique that enables a person to control physiological responses that are normally involuntary, such as level of blood pressure, is known asbiofeedbackWhich of the following is the best interpretation of Solomon Asch's findings, pictured above, concerning conformity in perceptual judgments?Conformity increases as group size increases to about four persons.Mental shortcuts or rules of thumb that help solve problems and reduce mental effort are calledheuristicsThe Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory is used primarily to provide information about which of the following?Clinical disordersWhich of the following is true of the frequency distributions shown in the graphs above?Distribution B has more variation than distributions A or C.Which of the following is a partial reinforcement schedule that is most resistant to extinction?Variable ratioA young child shown a nine-inch round bowl and a six-inch round bowl containing equal amounts of popcorn says he is certain the smaller bowl has more popcorn than the larger bowl. This child has yet to acquire what Jean Piaget calledconservationWhich of the following concepts provides the best explanation for why people seek to put on warmer clothing when they start to feel cold?HomeostasisThe linguistic relativity hypothesis of Benjamin Whorf suggests which of the following?Speakers of different languages think differently due to the differences in their languages.An individual diagnosed as having a somatoform disorder would be most likely to showa biologically unfounded loss of bodily functioning"It belongs to human nature to hate those you have injured." This belief is best explained bycognitive dissonance theoryTo score high on a test of creativity, a person's answers should beoriginal and valuableMemory for automatic activities, such as bike riding and handwriting, is known asproceduralAfter discussing a topic, a group makes a decision that is more extreme than the average position of all of the group members prior to discussion. The group's action is an example ofgroup polarizationBrain damage that leaves a person capable of understanding speech but with an impaired ability to produce speech most likely indicates injury to which of the following?Broca's areaGender differences have most often been found in which of the following?AggressionWhich of the following statements best depicts the concept of incentive theory?Jennifer studies hard because her parents reward her by paying $20 for each superior grade that she brings home.The correlation between scores obtained on two halves of a single test yields information about the test'sreliabilityVance is a popular honors student who, unlike his reference group, writes his best papers sitting on his motorcycle in the basement of his college dormitory. His behavior can be considered abnormal only if abnormality is defined asdeviation from cultural normsFailure to recognize that an object typically not used for a particular purpose can, in fact, serve that purpose illustrates which of the following?Functional fixedness