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BIOL 307 final- stuff not on note card
Terms in this set (48)
steves paper: bee richness...
significantly increased after a fire
Steve's paper: coniferous forests...
improve bee richness
which taxa seemed to generally increase in species richness but declined in abundance after general fires?
importance of studying biodiversity
higher biodiversity=healthier ecosystem=more ecosystem functions=more ecosystem services like clean air and pollinators; without high biodiversity there is no healthy ecosystem and if the ecosystem isnt healthy it cant support life and we will all die
difference between taxonomy and systematics
systematics looks at the evolutionary aspects between orgs and species while taxonomy just looks to identify, describe, and name organisms based on morph and reproduction, etc
scientific names in parentheses
the original name is not in a new genus than when originally described
what is a morphospecies in taxonomy and why is it important
Morphospecies - group of individual that look similar with observable characteristics but is not confirmed as the same species yet. Morphospecies show how similar looking things aren't always a result of relation but can be due to analogous or homoplastic structures or even mimicry. Morphospecies are helpful in the field to show that further studied is needed.
Monophyletic vs. Paraphyletic vs. Polyphyletic
- Monophyletic: A taxonomic group consisting of all descendants of the group's most recent common ancestor (and nothing else)
- Paraphyletic: A taxonomic group consisting of ancestral species + some but not all descendants
- Polyphyletic: A taxonomic group that doesnt include a common ancestor
morphological species concept and why steve likes it
says that orgsn that look distinctly different than other groups but look the same to each other must be the same species
Steve likes it because it can be applied to insects and plants, the most biodiverse groups, in a straightforward way without needing to know life history or genetics or ancestors like other concepts. Requires observation only
allopatric speciation and 3 examples
speciation caused by a geographic isolation by a geographic barrier (ocean, canyon, valley, mountatin) that separates 2 pops and prevents gene flow
ex 1: when pangea separated by water, all of the pieces evolved diff sp
ex 2: species on top of grand canyon are diff than ones at the bottom
ex 3: The fish separated by the Isthmus. of Panama so diff species in atlantic vs pacific.
how do orgs speciate when they occur within the same pop? three mechanisms and one example
Speciation in same population can be caused by sexual selection aka sympatric speciation or by different barriers blocking reproduction like habitat choice, behavior, or breeding time. a butterfly generation with a mutation will cause the other butterflies to not want to mate
5 mechanisms about why insects are so biodiverse? explain one
1. exoskeleton, 2. small size, 3. early colonization on land before early verts 4. short life cycle- allows for faster evolution bc of faster repro, higher chance of mutations, and are able to adapt faster, 5. key innovations like wings and metamorphosis
Taxonomic order for beetles and wasps, why are beetles so successful, and why do they think wasps will be most biodiverse?
beetles= Coleoptera- so successful bc of their hard exoskeleton that provides protection and prevents desiccation and allows internal muscle attachment
wasps= hymenoptera- most biodiverse because they can be parasitic and have a wide range of hosts, have a complete metamorphosis and can fly; Since they're parasitic they could hypothetically parasitize every insect species and they could also be hyper parasites for already parasites so there are almost limitless niches for the wasps to fillx
four insect predator types and which would you be
1. ambushers, 2. searchers for passive prey: random search and image search, 3. pursuers of active prey, and 4. nest provisioners. I would like to be an ambusher because the thrill and suspense keeps things interesting
importance of voltinism
to understand the butterflies preferred time of year to be adults and mate as well as understand seasons are typical to see this so that If research was wanted to be done we would know when to go back each year and sample for a species accumulation curve
why are only 0.01% of insect are protected
not charismatic species so not cute and cuddly so poeple don't have desire to learn about them let alone help them. some insect species could also just be very high in abundance.
permafrost? what biome? why ecologically important
when subsoil is constantly frozen. Occurs in artic tundra. Important because It provides unique instances for different species growth like certain plants need frozen soil for stability
ecosystem? keeps maintained?
is a place where living and nonliving things interact and work to maintain each other. Maintained by one way movement of energy flows, cyclic movement of nutrients and the energy from the sun. Limited by geology and soil and the unique orgs and their interactions
how would you measure net primary productivity
g C/m^2/yr. measure how much carbon is in a 1x1 plot in one year to measure how much life was created in one year
How does Earth's tilt and shape create and affect seasons and wind patterns.
Tilt of earth towards and away from sun affects Direct Sunlight which affects energy the area is receiving. tilted towards in spring and summer so it receives more direct sunlight. Tilted away in winter and fall so less direct sunlight even though the planet is closest to the sun at this point. Direct sunlight also affects wind patterns because of evaporation pulling cool moist air up and dropping hot dry air down creating Hadley cells like in Africa. Spherical shape also influence by sunlight because equator gets more sunlight and not dispersed.
spherical shape allows for a pattern of high and low pressure systems that causes diff wind patterns in conjunction w the coriolis effect (high-low-high-low-high-low-high)
4 main reasons why tropics are so biodiverse, explain 2
1. size, 2. time- species there didnt have to flee or fear the ice so it gave them more time to specialize in a niche and diversify, 3. stability, 4. more direct sunlight- causes more energy and more primary productivity that supports more individual life and abundance of species, slows extinction rates so they can evolve faster
What biome is Antarctica?
Desert because little rain and lack of trees
a syntype can be a single specimen to describe an entire species
cotypes are the only specimens that can be used as a primary and secondary type
all allotypes are primary types
One advantage and disadvantage for studying organisms within natural boundaries and within artificial boundaries
natural: adv- can choose most natural habitat, disadv- only a fraction of the pop of its native range could be found in said boundary like a forest
artificial: adv- Only have to get approved to work in one set of boundaries, disadv- Doesn't cover full range so not true sampling
Three types of ecological distribution patterns, why do populations have different distributions, and how and why would a population be all three and how could you test a distribution.
Random, uniform, and clustered. Populations go within the three because of resource availability, interactions between individuals and interactions between environment. A population could be all three by being clustered as youth for protection, random as they get older while searching for mates, and uniform as adults for territories.
Tagging individuals of a population would let us see how close they are to other tagged individuals.
density dependent vs density independent factors? what do they affect? 2 examples
density dependent- dependent on the density of a pop, ex: predation, water and food availability
independent- events that happen by chance and has no dependence on the density of a pop, ex: fire and hurricanes
they affect the size of a healthy pop
types of survivorship curves? most important factors that affect them?
type 1: late loss, high suvivorship throughout life, majority reaches maturity, typical of k-selected species
type 2: constant loss, independent of age
type 3: early loss, low mortality after maturity, typical of r-selected sp
affected by # of offspring and amount of parental care given
potential vs realized niche? what factors play into this? how can these help conservation?
potential niche- entire set of conditions under which a sp can survive and repro
realized- set of conditions actually used by a sp after all the interactions with other sp
factors: predation, competiton, and temperature
help: we can help provide species with conditions matching their realized niche in order to help maximize success
symbiosis? four main modes and explain each
Symbiosis is the evolutionary relationship between organisms
Mutualism +/+ all participating organisms benefit from the interaction
Commensualism +/0 one benefits while the other is unaffected
Parasitism +/- one organism (parasite) depends on another org (host) for nourishment while doing harm to host but not enough to kill the host
Competition -/- multiple orgs seek the same limited resources (food, mates, sunlight, etc) where one primary organizing forces that structure a community and drives one to either extinction or evolution- both harmed
Specific relationship that lichen is, two main organisms that make up lichen, functions of two organisms
lichen is a mutualistic symbiotic relationship between fungus and algae where they are dependent on one another to survive in conditions there they would not usually survive. the algae provides nutrients by producing organic matter through photosynthesis and the fungus protects the algae from the environment and gathers moisutre and nutrients from surrounding enviro
competitive exclusion principle and how its been tested
when 2 sp competiting for the same limiting resources cant coexist so one sp finds another way by adapting or evolving or becoming extinct. Robert macarthur tested this with diff sp of warblers used diff parts of a tree (16 zones) and found that sp avoid comp bc of ecological niche and each warbler adapted/evolved to find their realized niche
which cascade has a greater negative impact and justify
top-down cascade has a great negative affect on an ecosystem bc removal of the apex predator would cause an increase in primary consumers which would lead to overpop which would then lead to overexploit of primary producers. Less primary producers to feed the primary consumer woud lead to comp among all consumers and those starving would die
how can you quanityf a species value and why is it taboo
for a bee ex, you can quanity species value by comparing how many flowers this particular species pollinates to other species. The bee that pollinates the most flowers, say all 15 in an area, would be more valuable than a bee that only pollinates 3 species of flower within that 15. This is taboo bc poeple like to think all things are equally as important and that everything should have equal support until one sp becomes endangered and then even if it isnt the most valuable to that ecosystem all resources would go into conserving that ex: polar bears
how does overall biodiversity benefit through the process of succession
as a community goes through the successional stages more things are growing and becoming sources of shelter and food which provide more support for species pops to thrive. succession also benefits this because as new things are growing and spreading themselves they are adding to the overall biodiversity.
which taxa showed highest amt of variation? why?
butterflies because they are too broad of a taxonomic group since many spp have very diff reactions to a variety of circumstances, like fire
how can meta-analyses help conservation managers?
make accurate predictions of fire response with certain characterisitcs and know when and what fire freq/severity to use. eliminates the unknown
why were bees so successful post fire
high resistence and resilience bc of trait diversity and how they nest underground or in deadwood. protected in all life stages from heat and direct flame underground. fires create more vigorous plant growth which increases pollination for bees
5 fields with data gaps
1. middle severity fires for bee richness and butterfly biod metrics 2. multiple fires at a single site for butterfly biod metrics, 3. 6-10 years for ground beetles and butterfly biod metrics, 4. 11+ years for same, 5. biodiversity metrics of any taxa in desert and shrubland habitats
why do fields have data gaps?
didnt met minimum of 2 studies and 5 effects
important bc it more accurately details the influence that variation can have on specific, significant results. shows if one effect or data points is the main reason for a result and if something is removed if it will stay the same. every scientist should do this to strengthen findings and gain confidence of original results
major continents with little to no data? problem?
Asia, africa, and australia has little and no data respectively. limits scope of the influence of fire on the 3 taxa to a smaller portion of the world. having more data would provide help to find more accurate patterns or even a trend that couldnt be seen on a smaller scope
when studies are not published in peer-reviewed journals for reasons like insignificant results
publications bias problem and grey literature help
affects lit bc then only significant effects are included in meta-analyses when the insignificant results can actually contradict findings. gray lit, info produced by gov agencies, academic institutions, etc, helps bc the unpublished findings could be published here along with other relvant info that is not otherwise able to be found
why were hypotheses so obvious?
probably thought they were obvious because all 3 taxa are very different form each other so of course they would be affected differently and present in varying measurements of biod
why hypotheses so broad?
previous findings were all contradictory so it would be hard to justify a specific hyp based on those results. don't have explicit data to base claims of a distinct positive or negative implication.
what trying to be solved? why problem?
solve if there was a larger global signiture of fire on specific insect communities. leading problem due to the diff parameters of each previous study, conflicting results, and lack of consideration for fire complexity, heterogenity, and different mechanisms.
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