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Language of Medicine Chapter 18- Pathology

Chabner's Language of Medicine, 9th edition. Pathology for Chapter 18- the endocrine system.
enlargement of the thyroid gland
endemic goiter
enlargement of the thyroid gland occurring in certain regions and peoples where there is a lack of iodine in the diet
adenomatous goiter
enlargement of the thyroid gland with hyperplasia, nodules, and adenomas
overactivity of the thyroid gland; thyrotoxicosis; most commomn form is Graves disease
Graves disease
most common form of hyperthyroidism; it is considered an autoimmune disorder and is characterized by an increased heart rate, higher body temperature, weight loss, and exophthalmos (protrusion of the eyeballs)
underactivity of the thyroid gland causing fatigue, sluggishness, weight gain, and slow heart rate
advanced hypothyroidism in adulthood caused by atrophy of the thyroid gland; skin becomes puffy due to the collection of mucus-like material under the skin
extreme hypothyroidism during infancy and childhood leading to lack of normal physical and mental growth
thyroid carcinoma
cancer of the thyroid gland
excessive production of parathormone resulting in hypercalcemia and damage to the kidneys, heart, and bones
deficient production of parathyroid hormone resulting in hypocalcemia, muscle and nerve weakness, and muscle spasms
constant muscle contraction; muscle and nerve weakness with spasms of muscles
adrenal virilism
excessive secretion of the adrenal androgens resulting in amenorrhea, hirsutism (excessive hair on face and body) , and acne
Cushing syndrome
group of signs and symptoms produced by excess cortisol from adrenal cortex (e.g., obesity, moon-like face, buffalo hump, hyperglycemia and hypertension)
Addison disease
hypofunctioning of the adrenal cortex
benign tumor of the adrenal medulla resulting in the production of excess secretion of epinephrine and norepinephrine; tumor cells stain a dark or dusty (phe/o) color (chrom/o)
excess secretion of insulin causing hypoglycemia
diabetes mellitus (DM)
lack of insulin secretion or resistances of insulin in promoting sugar, starch, and fat metabolism in cells
Type 1 diabetes
form of diabetes mellitus that is an autoimmune disease; results in the destruction of beta islet cells and a complete deficiency of insulin on the body; usually occurs before age 30
Type 2 diabetes
form of diabetes mellitus occurring in older age and with obesity; deficiency of insulin occurs with insulin resistance
insulin resistance
the resistance of target tissues to the action of insulin; the primary defect in type 2 diabetes
metabolic syndrome
precursor to type 2 diabetes; associated with insulin resistance, obesity, hypertension, and excessive triglycerides in the blood
fats are improperly burned leading to an accumulation of ketones and acids in the body; a primary complication of type 1 diabetes
insulin shock
severe hypoglycemia caused by an overdose of insulin, decreased intake of food, or excessive exercise; primary complication of type 1 diabetes
hypersecretion of growth hormone from the anterior pituitary after puberty, leading to enlargement of extremities
hypersecretion of growth hormone from the anterior pituitary before puberty, leading to abnormal overgrowth of body tissues
congenital hyposecretion of growth hormone; hypopituitary dwarfism
deficiency of all pituitary hormones
syndrome of inappropriate ADH (SIADH)
excessive secretion of antidiuretic hormone producing water retention in the body
diabetes insipidus (DI)
insufficient secretion of antidiuretic hormone causing the kidney tubules to fail to hold back needed water and salts; polyuria and polydipsia are two symptoms