MLT 141 Unit 7 SQ

Of the clinically significant Bartonella species, which is transmitted via a fleabite with the reservoir being rats?
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Curved, microaerophilic, gram-negative rods, with most species having strong urease activity and the majority of which colonize mammalian stomachs or intestines, describe which group of bacteria?urease enzyme.Virulence determinants of H. pylori include:A proton pump inhibitor, clarithromycin, and metronidazole.A gram-negative, spiral-shaped organism is isolated from a stool sample that was hippurate-positive, catalase-positive, susceptible to nalidixic acid, and resistant to cephalothin. The organism can be identified as:C. jejuni subsp. jejuni.Ensuring that all foods derived from animal sources are thoroughly cooked, all milk is pasteurized, and all drinking water is chlorinated are ways to avoid becoming infected with:Campylobacter.Campylobacter jejuni subsp. jejuni grows best at what conditions?42C under microaerobic conditionsNucleic acid based methods have been successfully used for the identification of H. pylori from a variety of specimens except feces, because:nucleic acid is often degraded and multiple inhibitors are presentMALDI-TOF MS may be used to identify all of the following genera except:None of the responsesTo cultivate Legionella in the laboratory, a medium supplemented with what ingredient(s) is necessary?L-cysteine and ironThe medium or media of choice used to recover Legionella is:buffered charcoal yeast extract (BCYE).A febrile and pneumonic illness first named in 1976 by scientists at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) who were investigating an epidemic of pneumonia among Pennsylvania State American Legion members attending a convention in Philadelphia is known as:legionnaires' disease.Organisms belonging to the genus Legionella are:faintly staining, thin gram-negative bacilliA direct immunofluorescent antibody (DFA) test was performed on a sputum sample that yielded a positive test. The organism grew on BCYE medium and was a thin Gram-negative, faintly staining bacillus. What is the drug of choice for this organism?FluoroquinolonesAn elderly man with chronic heart and lung disease develops Legionella pneumonia. By what route was the infection most likely to have been acquired?Inhalation of aerosolized water from a source containing protozoaWho is at most risk to develop legionnaires' disease?65-year-old transplant recipientThe natural habitat of L. pneumophila is:freshwater streamsLegionella pneumophila uses which of the following for protection?AmoebaeWhich water temperatures are most suitable for the growth of legionella bacteria?20 to 42CWith the application of modern molecular genetic and cell biological techniques, the mechanisms used by Legionella to multiply within _________ are beginning to be understood.phagocyteIndividuals considered at greatest risk for contracting brucellosis are:dairy farmers.Facultative, intracellular parasitic bacteria are those that are able to:exist in both intracellular and extracellular environments.Organisms belonging to the genus Brucella are:gram negative coccobacilliAlthough in vitro susceptibility testing is not reliable, which regimen of antibiotics is recommended for Brucella infections?Doxycycline and rifampinThe animal reservoir for Brucella melitensis is:Sheep or goatsWhich of the following species are considered select agents and require notification to CDC within 24 hours?Only B and CSeveral specimens can be used for the diagnosis of brucellosis. Which of the following specimens are considered the best for the recovery of the organisms by culture methods?Bone marrow and bloodThe use of MALDI-TOF MS in the identification of brucellosis:has been successfully used with high correlation between with protein spectra and nucleic acid sequences.Which two dyes help to distinguish between Brucella melitensis and B. abortus?Basic fuchsin and thioninOf Brucella melitensis, B. ovis, B. canis, and B. abortus, which is positive for H2S production.B. abortusPertussis (whooping cough) is an epidemic disease that is a highly contagious, acute infection of the upper respiratory tract caused by the:Bordetella spp.The mode of transmission of B. pertussis can best be described as:person-to-person contact.During the catarrhal stage of pertussis, symptoms are:runny nose and mild cough.During the paroxysmal stage of pertussis, symptoms are:severe and violent coughing.Acceptable specimens for the detection of B. pertussis are:nasopharyngeal aspirates.Because of its longer shelf life, the medium of choice to cultivate Bordetella spp. is:Regan-Lowe agar.Which of the following toxins contributes to the virulence of B. pertussis and works by hemolyzing red cells and activating cyclic adenosine monophosphate, which inactivates several types of host immune cells?Adenylate cyclase toxinB. pertussis colonies growing on Regan-Lowe medium yields which of the following colonial morphologic appearances?Mercury-drop coloniesA nasopharyngeal aspirate is cultured on Bordet-Gengou agar, and growth is observed. The colonies are also subjected to nucleic acid testing that is positive. On the basis of these findings, the antimicrobial therapy that should be administered to the patient is:azithromycin.If real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is performed on a Bordetella isolate, then it must be noted that this type of swab is unacceptable for collection because of the presence of which of the following inhibitory factors?Calcium alginateNucleic acid methods have replaced DFA and cultures in most laboratories. This is due to the fact that:All of the above are correct.The specimen of choice to collect in suspected cases of Francisella tularensis is:BloodTo cultivate Francisella in the laboratory, a medium supplemented with which of the following ingredient(s) is necessary?Cysteine, cystine and ironTularemia, characterized by glandular, ulceroglandular, oculoglandular, oropharyngeal, systemic, and pneumonic presentations, is caused by which of the following species?FrancisellaWhich assay is available to identify F. tularensis serologically?Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs)Culture negative and seronegative patients suspected of having tularemia:may be positively identified using nucleic acid based testing such as PCR.Patient X is admitted to the ER with a lesion on his forearm that has become an ulcer. He also presents with fever, chills, headache and general aches and pains. A culture is taken and placed on nonselective BCYE. The colonies are transparent, mucoid and easily emulsified. They also test weakly catalase positive and oxidase negative. The physicians are unsure until they do an extensive patient history and it has revealed that the patient enjoys hunting and has recently been on a trip to bag rabbits. What is the most likely cause of the infection?Franciella tularensisPeople can acquire tularemia via the following ways:All of the aboveTularemia may be treated. Typically, this treatment consists of the following:doxycycline (or other approved antibiotic).Which of the following cause rat-bite fever, or Haverhill fever, which is characterized by acute onset of chills, fever, headache, vomiting, and severe joint pains, as well as a rash on the palms, soles of the feet, and other extremities?Streptobacillus moniliformisThe name given to rat-bite fever when the illness is acquired by the ingestion of the bacterium is:Haverhill fever.The name given to rat-bite fever when the illness is caused by acquired Spirillum minus is:sodoku.Which of the following causes sodoku, which is characterized by swollen lymph nodes, chills, fever, headache, vomiting, and often severe joint pains, a rash on the palms, soles of the feet, and other extremities, and a granulomatous lesion?S. minusRat-bite fever caused by S. minus can be differentiated from that caused by S. moniliformis by:a granulomatous lesion.A lesion from an individual that works in a research laboratory is cultured and reveals a "fried egg" appearance with a dark center when grown on blood agar after 48 hours of incubation. The organism is nonmotile, indole, catalase, oxidase, and nitrate negative. Which of the following organism was isolated?Streptobacillus sp.A patient has an infection caused by S. moniliformis. Which of the following is the preferred antibiotic choice?PenicillinA laboratory assistant that works with mice recently noticed that their lymph nodes were swollen and that they had a lesion on their hand that was not there a few weeks ago. The lymph node tissue is sent to the laboratory for culture. The laboratory technologist noticed on the stained sample that there was an organism present that resembled a spiral, gram negative with flagella. The cultures grew no organisms. What is the most likely cause for the discrepancy?The organism is not able to grow on media and requires another method for identification.All of the following have been isolated from human infections, except:S. felis.Long, slender, helically curved, gram-negative bacilli with tight coils are identified as belonging to which species?TreponemaLong, slender, helically curved, gram-negative bacilli with hooked ends are identified as belonging to which species?LeptospiraSystemic symptoms, such as fever, weight loss, malaise, and a loss of appetite, along with a widespread rash, can be observed in patients suffering from _________ syphilis.secondaryA widely used nontreponemal serologic assay is the ________ test.rapid plasma reagin (RPR)The most common vector-borne disease in North America and Europe transmitted by the bite of Ixodes ticks is caused by:Borrelia burgdorferi.A destructive lesion of the gums, also known as acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis, that is caused by oral spirochetes and other bacteria is known as:Vincent's disease.A stage of venereal syphilis characterized by the appearance of a chancre is known as __________ syphilis.primaryA stage of venereal syphilis, characterized by tissue destruction, central nervous system disease, cardiovascular abnormalities, eye disease, and granuloma-like lesions, is known as ________ syphilis.tertiaryTreponemal antibodies are those that are:produced against antigens of the organisms themselvesNontreponemal antibodies are those that are:produced by infected patients against components of mammalian cellsA nontreponemal flocculation serologic test in which soluble antigen particles are coalesced to form larger particles that are visible as clumps when they are aggregated by antibody is called the __________ test.VDRLA specific treponemal serologic test performed by overlaying whole treponemes that are fixed to a slide with serum from patients suspected of having syphilis and using fluorescein-conjugated antihuman antibody reagent to detect specific antitreponemal antibodies is called the _________ test.FTA-ABSA test that uses gelatin particles sensitized with T. pallidum subsp. pallidum antigens to detect specific antitreponemal antibodies in patient serum is called the __________ test.TP-PAA self-limiting illness and the most common clinical syndrome associated with leptospirae that includes fever, headache, myalgia, and aseptic meningitis in the immune stage is called:anicteric leptospirosis.The most severe illness associated with leptospirae, with symptoms of liver, kidney, and/or vascular dysfunction with lethal pulmonary hemorrhage and sometimes death, is called:icteric leptospirosis.The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommendations for testing in suspected cases of Lyme disease are to screen with ______ and confirm with ________.IFA; immunoblottingA patient has a reactive RPR result and a positive FTA-ABS test. The drug of choice to treat this infection is:penicillin G.An automated system uses bead-capture technology in the detection of which of the following spirochetes?TreponemaF. tularensis is the only species of within the genus known to cause human infection.FalseFrancisella tularensis is considered a select agent requiring the notification to CDC within 24 hours of laboratory identificationTrue