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16 terms

Chapter 2

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Carbohydrate
an essential structural component of living cells and source of energy for animals (sugar)
Monosaccharide
a simple sugar
Lipid
Fat, nonpolar molecule, macromolecule
Protein
Macromolecule made of amino acids
Amino acid
Building blocks of proteins
Nucleic Acid
an organic compound, either RNA or DNA, whose molecules are made up of one or two chains of nucleotides and carry genetic information, macromolecule
Nucleotide
in a nucleic-acid chain, a subunit that consists of a sugar, a phosphate, and a nitrogenous base
DNA
deoxyribonucleic acid, the material that contains the information that determines inherited characteristics, macromolecule, 2 strands
RNA
ribonucleic acid, macromolecule, 1 strand
ATP
(adenosine triphosphate) main energy source that cells use for most of their work
Energy
the ability to do work or cause change or moves matter
Activation energy
energy needed to get a reaction started
Enzyme
protein that speeds up a chemical reaction
Substrate
The reactant on which an enzyme works.
Active Site
the site on an enzyme that attaches to a substrate
Macromolecule
large molecule formed by joining smaller molecules together