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18 terms

General Terminolgy CH 10

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Prime mover (agonist)
Muscle that bears the major responsibility for effecting a particular movement.
Antagonist
Muscle that bears the major responsibility for effecting a particular movement: a prime mover
Synergist
Muscle that aids the action of a prime mover by effecting the same movement or by stabilizing joints across which the prime mover acts, preventing undesirable movements, or hormone that amplifies the effect of another hormone at a target cell.
Fixators
Muscle that immobilizes one or more bones, allowing other muscles to act from a stable base.
Lever
A rigid bar that moves on a fixed point.
Fulcrum
The fixed point on which a lever moves when a force is applied
Mechanical advantage
the advantage gained by the use of a mechanism in transmitting force; specifically: the ratio of the force that performs the useful work of a machine to the force that is applied to the machine
Mechanical disadvantage
a measure of the force amplification achieved by using a tool, mechanical device or machine system.
First-class lever
Lever is a lever with its Fulcrum in between the Effort and the Load.
Second-class lever
A lever in which the force arm is longer than the work-producing arm; thus the work produced is always greater than the energy used, with a resultant high efficiency.
Third-class lever
A lever in which the axis is at one end, the load at the other end, and the effort is exerted in between, as in a treadle.
Charley horse
a muscular pain, cramping, or stiffness especially of the quadriceps that results from a strain or bruise
Electromyography
an instrument that converts the electrical activity associated with functioning skeletal muscle into a visual record or into sound and has been used to diagnose neuromuscular disorders and in biofeedback training
Fasciotomy
surgical incision of a fascia
Hernia
Abnormal protrusion of an organ or a body part through the containing wall of its cavity
Shin splints
painful injury to and inflammation of the tibial and toe extensor muscles or their fasciae that is caused by repeated minimal traumas(running on a hard surface)
Tennis elbow
inflammation and pain over the outer side of the elbow involving the lateral epicondyle of the humerus and usually resulting from excessive strain on and twisting of the forearm
Torticollis
a twisting of the neck to one side that results in abnormal carriage of the head and is usually caused by muscle spasms